File:Oahu Akepa.jpg
Oʻahu ʻakepa
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Inopinaves
Order: Passeriformes
Suborder: Passeri
Clade: Nine-primaried oscines
Family: Fringillidae
Subfamily: Carduelinae
Tribe: Drepanidini
Genus: Loxops

The ʻakepa (Loxops sp.) are a group of one of the smallest Hawaiian forest birds, at four inches long and weighing 10 grams. They are placed in the genus Loxops. Found only in high elevation old growth rainforest, these nonmigratory passerines have rounded heads, black eyes, and black wings and tail. Adult males sport one of the most brilliant orange colors found in any bird, a plumage which takes four years to develop. Females are greenish gray on back, lighter gray on front, with varying amounts of yellow and sometimes pale orange on the breast and belly. Juveniles appear similar to females, though are generally duller in color.

All ʻakepa have an unusual cross-bill. When closed, the upper bill tip slightly overlaps the lower bill tip to one side (this cannot be seen in the field). When opening the bill, as in prying open leaf buds to extract small caterpillars, the bills swing dramatically sideways, and this is easily seen in the hand. Some birds cross one way, and some the other, apparently randomly. The ʻakepa cross-bill operates similarly to that in the North American crossbills (genus Loxia), but is much less obvious when the bill is closed.

ʻAkepa are usually found from 1,500 to 2,200 meters above sea level. They are non-territorial, and group male displays have often been observed in the beginning of the breeding season. They participate in mixed-species flocks during the non-breeding season. They are highly endangered. ʻAkepa is a Hawaiian term meaning "agile", befitting their active foraging at branch tips.


The Akepa was previously considered the same taxa, the group was split into distinct species by the NACC of the AOU in 2015, only one of which, the Hawaiʻi ʻAkepa, can be found today:

The Akekee is sometimes called the "Kauai ʻAkepa".

Distribution and relatives

  • Loxops coccineus: The Hawaiʻi ʻAkepa survives only in two or three locations, all on the island of Hawaii: one population in Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (on the Hamakua Coast of Mauna Kea), one in the upper forest areas of Kau (in the southern part of the island), and one on the northern slope of Hualālai (perhaps extirpated).
  • Loxops wolstenholmei: The Oahu ʻAkepa was found in large numbers until the 1890s. Immediately afterward, a sharp drop in its numbers was noted. Many feel that it had disappeared by the 1920s; however, scattered, unconfirmed reports were posted in the 1990s. This subspecies' male was brick red in coloration, while the female was dark gray.
  • Loxops ochraceus: The Maui ʻAkepa was found on the mountain of Haleakalā in east Maui. This population was detected at low numbers until 1992, when the last sighting was documented. There are still reports of green yellow birds flying in the remote reserve, so there may be individuals remaining, but this is very unlikely as dedicated intensive surveys have failed to confirm any Maui ʻakepa.
  • Loxops caeruleirostris: The Akeke’e, or Kauai ʻAkepa, was once thought to a subspecies of L. coccineus, but was evident in the 1990s that this bird was different in coloring, nesting, songs and degree of sexual dimorphism.

The Loxops are considered an endangered species while its population has been rapidly declining over the last ten years. The Loxops are mainly located in Kaua`i in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. Modern developments that take over the environment are threatening the Loxops and reducing their habitat availability in the Koke`e region. A lof of the current region of the Loxops is protected by Alaka`i Wilderness Preserve and, to some extent, by Koke`e State Park.[2]



Loxops average the size of 11 cm. They are considered a finch-like bird that also have a notched tail. Their bills have a cone shape to them and they are pale blue with a dark tip. They are also hard to find in the field. Males typically are a darker shade of green on the top while their belly-side is yellow. They also have a black mask that covers their face up until behind its eye while its forehead, forecrown, and backside is also yellow. Females resemble the same colors as the males, but the colors are muted and less vibrant.[2]


The Loxops commonly breed during the months of March and April and possibly during the months of February to June. The nests of the Loxops are found in the `ohi`a trees.[2]


The group is highly dependent on ʻōhiʻa lehua trees and koa trees for food. The bills are specialized for opening ʻōhiʻa lehua leaf buds in search of small caterpillars. Fretz (2002) suggests that this food source is only found in old-growth Hawaiian forests and could be one factor in ʻakepa population declines. The lehua (or blossom) of the ʻōhiʻa tree provides a source of nectar that this bird consumes occasionally. The koa tree's cracked bark serves as a home for many insects and arthropods that the ʻakepa finds delectable.

Two of the three species of ʻakepa are extinct or probably extinct. As of 2000, about 14,000 Hawaiʻi ʻakepa remained. They were listed as an endangered species in 1975.


  1. ^ "Loxops coccineus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Akekee Loxops caeruleirostris". Bird Life. Retrieved 21 December 2012. 

Eurasian Spoonbill This article is part of Project Bird Genera, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on each genus, including made-up genera.
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