Area 14000000km² (5,400,000 sq mi)[1]
Population 0 permanent residents (2014)[2]
~ 5,000 temporary residents
Demonym Antarctican, Antarctic
Internet TLD .aq

A landmass and continent around Earth's South Pole, it is the southern most continent. It is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.

Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents.[3] Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches) along the coast and far less inland.[4] The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89 °C (−129 °F). There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Only cold-adapted organisms survive, including many types of algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, protista, and certain animals, such as mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades. Vegetation where it occurs is tundra.

There are no countries on Antarctica, but it is divided into a number of territories of other nations.

Birds of Antarctica


  1. ^ United States Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Antarctica". The World Factbook. Government of the United States. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ National Satellite, Data, and Information Service. "National Geophysical Data Center". Government of the United States. Archived from the original on 13 June 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2006. 
  4. ^ Joyce, C. Alan (18 January 2007). "The World at a Glance: Surprising Facts". The World Almanac. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2009. 

Map of Europa.png This article is part of Project Locations, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on each location.
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