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Aratinga
File:Aratinga aurea -Brazil-8-4c.jpg
Peach-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga aurea)
on a termite mound in Brazil
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Inopinaves
Order: Psittaciformes
Superfamily: Psittacoidea
Family: Psittacidae
Subfamily: Arinae
Tribe: Arini
Genus: Aratinga
Spix, 1824
Species

20-25, see text

Aratinga is a genus of American parakeets. They belong to the long-tailed group and are among the genera often called conures in aviculture. Most are predominantly green, although a few are predominantly yellow or orange. They are social and commonly seen in groups in the wild. In Brazil the popular name of several species usually is Jandaia, sometimes written as Jandaya in the scientific form.

Many species from this genus are popular pets, although being larger than the members of the genus Pyrrhura, they need a sizable aviary to thrive.

The taxonomy of this genus is unresolved with clear indication that the genus as currently defined is paraphyletic.[1][2][3][4] Several clusters of species, complexes, are recognized in this genus, with variying degrees of understanding, such as the Aratinga solstitialis complex,[1][2] A. mitrata complex,[5] A. holochlora complex,[4] and A. pertinax (-complex).[6] Additionally, the Golden Parakeet has been included in Aratinga, but is now generally placed in the monotypic Guarouba.[4] The Guadeloupe Parakeet (Aratinga labati) is an hypothetical extinct species that has been postulated based on little evidence.[7]

Species

File:Sittiche.jpg

A. solstitialis, one of the few members of the genus with a mainly yellow-orange plumage

  • Aratinga acuticaudata, Blue-crowned Parakeet, Blue-crowned Conure, Sharp-tailed Conure
  • Aratinga holochlora, Green Parakeet, Green Conure
    • Aratinga (holochlora) strenua, Pacific Parakeet, Nicaraguan Green Conure
    • Aratinga (holochlora) brevipes, Socorro Parakeet
    • Aratinga (holochlora) rubritorquis, Red-throated Parakeet
  • Aratinga wagleri, Scarlet-fronted Parakeet
  • Aratinga mitrata, Mitred Parakeet, Mitred Conure
    • Aratinga (mitrata) alticola, Chapman's Parakeet (proposed as a species in 2006,[5] but still considered a subspecies by most authorities[8][9])
  • Aratinga hockingi, Hocking's Parakeet (described as new to science in 2006,[5] but not yet widely recognized[8][9])
  • Aratinga erythrogenys, Red-masked Parakeet, Cherry-headed Conure
  • Aratinga finschi, Finsch's Parakeet
  • Aratinga leucophthalma, White-eyed Parakeet, White-eyed Conure
  • Aratinga euops, Cuban Parakeet
  • Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parakeet
  • Aratinga labati, Guadeloupe Parakeet (hypothetical extinct species)[7]
  • Aratinga solstitialis, Sun Parakeet, Sun Conure
    • Aratinga (solstitialis) maculata, Sulphur-breasted Parakeet
    • Aratinga (solstitialis) jandaya, Jandaya Parakeet, Jenday Conure
    • Aratinga (solstitialis) auricapilla, Golden-capped Parakeet
  • Aratinga weddellii, Dusky-headed Parakeet, Dusky-headed Conure, Weddell's Conure
  • Aratinga nana, Olive-throated Parakeet
    • Aratinga (nana) nana, Jamaican Parakeet
    • Aratinga (nana) astec, Aztec Parakeet
  • Aratinga canicularis, Orange-fronted Parakeet, Orange-fronted Conure, Half-moon Conure
  • Aratinga aurea, Peach-fronted Parakeet
  • Aratinga pertinax, Brown-throated Parakeet, St. Thomas Conure
  • Aratinga cactorum, Caatinga Parakeet, Cactus Parakeet

A fossil species from the Late Pleistocene of Ecuador was described as Aratinga roosevelti.

Hypothetical extinct species

Jean-Baptiste Labat described a population of small parrots living on Guadeloupe, which have been postulated to be a separate species based on little evidence. They were called Conurus labati, and are now referred to as the Guadeloupe Parakeet (Aratinga labati). There are no specimens or remains of the extinct parrots. Their taxonomy may never be fully elucidated, and so their postulated status as a separate species is hypothetical, and it is regarded as a hypothetical extinct species.[7]

References

  1. ^ a b Ribas, Camila C.; Miyaki, Cristina Y. (2004). [doi=10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00223-9 "Molecular systematics in Aratinga parakeets: species limits and historical biogeography in the 'solstitialis' group, and the systematic position of Nandayus nenday"] Check |url= value (help). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (3): 663. PMID 15012946. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00223-9. 
  2. ^ a b Silverira, L., F. de Lima, & E. Höfling. 2005. A new species of Aratinga Parakeet (Psittaformes: Psittacidae) from Brazil, with taxonomical remarks on the Aratinga solstitialis complex. The Auk 122(1): 292-305.
  3. ^ Tavares, ES; Tavares ES, Baker AJ, Pereira SL, Miyaki CY (2006). "Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of Neotropical parrots (Psittaciformes : Psittacidae : Arini) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences". Systematic Biology. 55 (3): 454–470. PMID 16861209. doi:10.1080/10635150600697390.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  4. ^ a b c Collar, N.J. (1997). J. del Hoyo, A. Ellio , and J. Sargatal,, ed. Family Psittacidae. Handbook of the Birds of the World. 4. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. pp. 280–479.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "HBW" defined multiple times with different content
  5. ^ a b c Arndt, T. 2006. A revision of the Aratinga mitrata complex, with the description of one new species, two new subspecies and species-level status of Aratinga alticolaJournal of Ornithology 147(1): 73-86
  6. ^ South American Classification Committee. 2005- . Recognize Aratinga pintoi as a valid species
  7. ^ a b c Fuller, Errol (1987). Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England). p. 131. ISBN 0670817972 Check |isbn= value: checksum (help). 
  8. ^ a b Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. 2008. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union.
  9. ^ a b Dickinson, E. (editor). 2003 w. updates. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Edition 3. Christopher Helm. ISBN 0713665362



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