Commonwealth of Australia
Flag of Australia Coat of arms of Australia
Anthem"Advance Australia Fair"[N 1]
Largest city Sydney
Official language(s) None[N 2]
National language English (de facto)[N 3]
Demonym Australian, Aussie[3][4]
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Governor-General Quentin Bryce
 -  Prime Minister Julia Gillard
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper House Senate
 -  Lower House House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Constitution 1 January 1901 
 -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931 
 -  Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 9 October 1942 (with effect from 3 September 1939) 
 -  Australia Act 3 March 1986 
 -  Total 7,617,930 km2 (6th)
2,941,299 sq mi 
 -  2020 estimate Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[".[5] (52nd)
 -  2006 census 19,855,288[6] 
 -  Density 2.8/km2 (233rd)
7.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $914.482 billion[7] (18th)
 -  Per capita $40,234[7] (12th)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $1.488 trillion[7] (13th)
 -  Per capita $65,477[7] (5th)
Gini (2006) 30.5[8] (medium
HDI (2011) Increase 0.929[9] (very high) (2nd)
Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Time zone various[N 4] (UTC+8 to +10.5)
 -  Summer (DST) various[N 4] (UTC+8 to +11.5)
Date formats dd-mm-yyyy
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .au
Calling code +61

Australia or Australis is a country that once belonged to the United Kingdom. See also: Australis.


Birds of Australia

Main: List of birds of Australia or Higher-level bird taxa restricted to Australia


  1. ^ Australia also has a royal anthem, "God Save the Queen (or King)", which is played in the presence of a member of the Royal family when they are in Australia. In all other appropriate contexts, the national anthem of Australia, "Advance Australia Fair", is played.[1]
  2. ^ English does not have de jure status.[2]
  3. ^ "Pluralist Nations: Pluralist Language Policies?". 1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings, Sydney. Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Retrieved 11 January 2009.  "English has no de jure status but it is so entrenched as the common language that it is de facto the official language as well as the national language."
  4. ^ a b There are minor variations from these three time zones, see Time in Australia.


  1. ^ It's an Honour – Symbols – Australian National Anthem and DFAT – "The Australian National Anthem"; "National Symbols" (PDF). Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (29th ed.). 2002 (updated 2005). Retrieved 7 June 2007.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named language
  3. ^ The Macquarie Dictionary
  4. ^ Collins English Dictionary. Bishopbriggs, Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2009. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-00-786171-2. 
  5. ^ "Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 12 April 2012.  The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.
  6. ^ Template:Census 2006 AUS
  7. ^ a b c d "Australia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  8. ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  9. ^ "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2 November 2011. 
Map of Europa This article is part of Project Locations, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on each location.
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