Common bottlenose
Common Bottlenose Dolphin breaching in the bow wave of a boat
Common bottlenose size-2
Size compared to an average human
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Cetartiodactyla
Family: Delphinidae
Genus: Tursiops
Gervais, 1855
Type species
See text below

Tursiops truncatus
Tursiops aduncus
Tursiops australis

Common bottlenose dolphin range
Range of T. truncatus

Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common and well-known members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.[2] Recent molecular studies show the genus contains two species, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus), instead of one. Research in 2011 revealed a third species, the Burrunan dolphin (Tursiops australis). Bottlenose dolphins inhabit warm and temperate seas worldwide.

Bottlenose dolphins live in groups typically of 10–30 members, called pods, but group size varies from single individuals up to more than 1,000. Their diets consist mainly of forage fish. Dolphins often work as a team to harvest fish schools, but they also hunt individually. Dolphins search for prey primarily using echolocation, which is similar to sonar. They emit clicking sounds and listen for the return echos to determine the location and shape of nearby items, including potential prey. Bottlenose dolphins also use sound for communication, including squeaks and whistles emitted from the blowhole and sounds emitted through body language, such as leaping from the water and slapping their tails on the water surface.

Numerous investigations of bottlenose dolphin intelligence have been conducted, examining mimicry, use of artificial language, object categorization, and self-recognition. They can use tools (sponging) and transmit cultural knowledge across generations,[3] and their considerable intelligence has driven interaction with humans. Bottlenose dolphins are popular from aquarium shows and television programs such as Flipper. They have also been trained by militaries to locate sea mines or detect and mark enemy divers. In some areas, they cooperate with local fishermen by driving fish into their nets and eating the fish that escape. Some encounters with humans are harmful to the dolphins: people hunt them for food, and dolphins are killed inadvertently as a bycatch of tuna fishing.

Bottlenose dolphins have the largest brain to body mass ratio of any mammal on Earth, sharing close ratios with those of Humans and other great apes, which more than likely attributes to their incredibly high intelligence and emotional intelligence.[4]


Scientists were long aware that Tursiops dolphins might consist of more than one species. Molecular genetics allowed much greater insight into this previously intractable problem. The consensus is two species exist,[5] although a third distinct species was described in 2011:

  • The common bottlenose dolphin (T. truncatus) is found in most tropical to temperate oceans; its color is grey, with the shade of grey varying among populations; it can be bluish-grey, brownish-grey, or even nearly black, and is often darker on the back from the rostrum to behind the dorsal fin.[6]
    The Black Sea bottlenose dolphin (T. t. ponticus) lives in the Black Sea.[7][8]
  • The Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus) lives in the waters around India, northern Australia, South China, the Red Sea, and the eastern coast of Africa; the back is dark-grey and the belly is lighter grey or nearly white with grey spots.[9]
  • The Burrunan dolphin (T. australis), found in the Port Phillip and Gippsland Lakes areas of Victoria, Australia, was described in September 2011 after research showed it was distinct from T. truncatus and T. aduncus.[10]
File:Tursiops aduncus.JPG

The following is sometimes recognized as a subspecies of T. truncatus:

  • The Pacific bottlenose dolphin (T. gillii or T. t. gillii) lives in the Pacific, and has a black line from the eye to the forehead.[7][11]

The two ecotypes of the common bottlenose dolphin within the western North Atlantic[12] are represented by the shallower water or coastal ecotype and the more offshore ecotype.[12] Their ranges overlap, but they have been shown to be genetically distinct.[12] They are not currently described, however, as separate species or subspecies. In general, genetic variation between populations is significant, even among nearby populations.[6] As a result of this genetic variation, other distinct species currently considered to be populations of common bottlenose dolphin are possible.[6]

Old scientific data do not distinguish between the two species, making it useless for determining structural differences between them. The IUCN lists both species as data deficient on their Red List of endangered species because of this issue.[13]

Some recent genetic evidence suggests the Indo-Pacific bottlenose belongs in the genus Stenella, since it is more like the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) than the common bottlenose.[14][15]

File:Baby wolphin by pinhole.jpeg

Dolphins belong to the suborder Odontocetae, which groups all toothed whale species, the largest of which is the sperm whale. The sister branch of Odontocetae includes all baleen-producing species (Mysticetae), the largest of which is the blue whale.


Bottlenose dolphins have been known to hybridize with other dolphin species. Hybrids with Risso's dolphin occur both in the wild and in captivity.[16][17] The best known is the wolphin, a false killer whale-bottlenose dolphin hybrid. The wolphin is fertile, and two currently live at the Sea Life Park in Hawaii. The first was born in 1985 to a female bottlenose. Wolphins also exist in the wild.[18] In captivity, a bottlenose dolphin and a rough-toothed dolphin hybridized.[19] A common dolphin-bottlenose dolphin hybrid born in captivity lives at SeaWorld California.[20][21] Other hybrids live in captivity around the world and in the wild, such as a bottlenose dolphin-Atlantic spotted dolphin hybrid.[22]


Dolphins are grey, varying from dark grey at the top near the dorsal fin to very light grey and almost white at the underside. This countershading makes them hard to see, both from above and below, when swimming. Adults range in length between 2 and 4 metres (6.6 and 13.1 ft), and in weight between 150 and 650 kilograms (330 and 1,430 lb).[23] Males are, on average, slightly longer and considerably heavier than females. In most parts of the world, the adult's length is about 2.5 m (8.2 ft), with weight ranges between 200 and 300 kilograms (440 and 660 lb).[6] Their size varies considerably with habitat. Except in the eastern Pacific, dolphins in warmer, shallower waters tend to be smaller than those in cooler, pelagic waters.[2] A survey in the Moray Firth in Scotland, the world's second northernmost dolphin population, recorded an average adult length of just under 4 m (13 ft) compared with a 2.5 m (8.2 ft) average in a population off the coast of Florida.

Bottlenose dolphins can live for more than 40 years.[24][25] However, one study of a population off Sarasota, Florida indicated an average lifespan of 20 years or less.[26]


Their elongated upper and lower jaws form what is called a rostrum, or snout, which gives the animal its common name. The real, functional nose is the blowhole on top of its head; the nasal septum is visible when the blowhole is open.

File:Bottlenose Dolphin KSC04pd0178 head only.JPG

Bottlenose dolphins have 18 to 28 conical teeth on each side of each jaw.[24][27]

The flukes (lobes of the tail) and dorsal fin are formed of dense connective tissue and do not contain bone or muscle. The animal propels itself by moving the flukes up and down. The pectoral flippers (at the sides of the body) are for steering; they contain bones homologous to the forelimbs of land mammals. A bottlenose dolphin discovered in Japan has two additional pectoral fins, or "hind legs", at the tail, about the size of a human's pair of hands. Scientists believe a mutation caused the ancient trait to reassert itself as a form of atavism.[28]

Physiology and senses

In colder waters, they have more body fat and blood, and are more suited to deeper diving. Typically, 18%–20% of their bodyweight is blubber.[29] Most research in this area has been restricted to the North Atlantic Ocean.[30] Bottlenose dolphins typically swim at 5–11 km/h (1.4–3.1 m/s), but are capable of bursts of up to 29–35 km/h (8.1–9.7 m/s). The higher speeds can only be sustained for a short time.[31][32]


The dolphin's search for food is aided by a form of sonar known as echolocation: they locate objects by producing sounds and listening for the echos. A broadband burst pulse of clicking sounds is emitted in a focused beam in front of the dolphin. To hear the returning echo, they have two small ear openings behind the eyes, but most sound waves are transmitted to the inner ear through the lower jaw. As the object of interest is approached, the echo grows louder, and the dolphins adjust by decreasing the intensity of the emitted sounds. (This contrasts with bats and sonar, which reduce sensitivity of the sound receptor.) The interclick interval also decreases as the animal nears the target. Evidently, the dolphin waits for each click's echo before clicking again. Echolocation details, such as signal strength, spectral qualities, and discrimination, are well-understood by researchers.[33] Bottlenose dolphins are also able to extract shape information, suggesting they are able to form an "echoic image" or sound picture of their targets.[34]


Dolphins have sharp eyesight. The eyes are located at the sides of the head and have a tapetum lucidum, or reflecting membrane, at the back of the retina, which aids vision in dim light. Their horseshoe-shaped, double-slit pupils enable dolphins to have good vision both in air and underwater, despite the different indices of refraction of these media.[35] When under water, the eyeball's lens serves to focus light, whereas in the in-air environment, the typically bright light serves to contract the specialized pupil, resulting in sharpness from a smaller aperture (similar to a pinhole camera).


By contrast, a bottlenose's sense of smell is poor,[36] because its blowhole, the analogue to the nose, is closed when underwater and it opens only for breathing. It has no olfactory nerves or olfactory lobe in the brain.[36] Bottlenose dolphins are able to detect salty, sweet, bitter (quinine sulphate), and sour (citric acid) tastes, but this has not been well-studied.[36] Anecdotally, some animals in captivity have been noted to have preferences for food fish types, although it is not clear if taste mediates this preference.[36]


Bottlenose dolphins communicate through burst pulsed sounds, whistles, and body language. Examples of body language include leaping out of the water, snapping jaws, slapping the tail on the surface and butting heads.[37] Sounds and gestures help keep track of other dolphins in the group, and alert other dolphins to danger and nearby food. Lacking vocal cords, they produce sounds using six air sacs near their blow hole. Each animal has a uniquely identifying, frequency-modulated narrow-band signature vocalization (signature whistle).[38]

Researchers from the Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute (BDRI), based in Sardinia (Italy) have now shown whistles and burst pulsed sounds are vital to the animals' social life and mirror their behaviors.[39]

The tonal whistle sounds (the most melodious ones) allow dolphins to stay in contact with each other (above all, mothers and offspring), and to coordinate hunting strategies.[40] The burst-pulsed sounds (which are more complex and varied than the whistles) are used "to avoid physical aggression in situations of high excitement", such as when they are competing for the same piece of food, for example. The dolphins emit these strident sounds when in the presence of other individuals moving towards the same prey. The "least dominant" one soon moves away to avoid confrontation.[39]

Other communication uses about 30 distinguishable sounds, and although famously proposed by John Lilly in the 1950s, no "dolphin language" has been found. However, Herman, Richards, and Wolz demonstrated comprehension of an artificial language by two bottlenose dolphins (named Akeakamai and Phoenix) in the period of skepticism toward animal language following Herbert Terrace's critique.[41]




Cognitive abilities that have been investigated include concept formation, sensory skills, and mental representations. Such research has been ongoing since the 1970s. This includes:

Tool use and culture

At least some wild bottlenose dolphins use tools. In Shark Bay, dolphins place a marine sponge on their rostrum, presumably to protect it when searching for food on the sandy sea bottom.[54] This has only been observed in this bay (first in 1997), and is predominantly practiced by females. Sea otters are the only other known marine mammalian tool users. A 2005 study showed mothers most likely teach the behavior to their offspring, evincing culture (behavior learned from other species members).[55]

Mud plume feeding is a feeding technique performed by a small community of bottlenose dolphins over shallow seagrass beds (less than 1 m) in the Florida Keys in the United States. The behavior involves creation of a U-shaped plume of mud in the water column and then rushing through the plume to capture fish.[56]

Along the beaches and tidal marshes of South Carolina and Georgia in the United States, bottlenose dolphins cooperatively herd prey fish onto steep and sandy banks in a practice known as "strand feeding". Groups of between two and six dolphins are regularly observed creating a bow wave to force the fish out of the water. The dolphins follow the fish, stranding themselves briefly, to eat their prey before twisting their bodies back and forth in order to slide back into the water.[57]

Some Mauritanian dolphins cooperate with human fishermen. The dolphins drive a school of fish towards the shore, where humans await with nets. In the confusion of casting nets, the dolphins catch a large number of fish as well. Intraspecies cooperative foraging has also been observed. These behaviors may also be transmitted via teaching. Controversially, Rendell and Whitehead have proposed a structure for the study of cetacean culture.[58][59]

Near Adelaide, in South Australia, three bottlenose dolphins 'tail-walk', whereby they elevate the upper part of their bodies vertically out of the water, and propel themselves along the surface with powerful tail movements. Tail-walking mostly arises via human training in dolphinaria. In the 1980s, a female from the local population was kept at a local dolphinarium for three weeks, and the scientist suggests she copied the tail-walking behavior from other dolphins. Two other wild adult female dolphins have now copied it from her.[60]

Cortical neurons

Some researchers theorize mammalian intelligence correlates to the number of nerve cells (neurons) in the cortex of the brain.[61] Bottlenose dolphins have about 5.8 billion cortical neurons, placing them between chimpanzees at 6.2 billion and gorillas at 4.3 billion. (Humans have 11.5 billion.)[61] However, after Homo sapiens, the species with the highest number of cortical neurons and synapses is the elephant.[62]:73

Life history

Respiration and sleep

The bottlenose dolphin has a single blowhole located on the dorsal surface of the head consisting of a hole and a muscular flap. The flap is closed during muscle relaxation and opens during contraction.[63] Dolphins are voluntary breathers, who must deliberately surface and open their blowholes to get air.[citation needed] They can store almost twice as much oxygen in proportion to their body weight as a human can: the dolphin can store 36 ml of oxygen per kg of body weight, compared with 20 ml/kg for humans. This is an adaptation to diving.[64] The bottlenose dolphin typically rises to the surface to breathe through its blowhole two to three times per minute,[29] although it can remain submerged for up to 20 minutes.[65]

Dolphins can breathe while "half-asleep". During the sleeping cycle, one brain hemisphere remains active, while the other hemisphere shuts down. The active hemisphere handles surfacing and breathing behavior.[66] The daily sleeping cycle lasts for about 8 hours, in increments of minutes to hours. During the sleeping cycle, they remain near the surface, swimming slowly or "logging", and occasionally closing one eye.[65]


File:Bottlenose dolphin mother and juvenile.jpg

Both sexes have genital slits on the underside of their bodies. The male can retract and conceal his penis through his slit.[67] The female's slit houses her vagina and anus. Females have two mammary slits, each housing one nipple, one on each side of the genital slit.[68] The ability to stow their reproductive organs (especially in males) allows for maximum hydrodynamics. The breeding season produces significant physiological changes in males. At that time, the testes enlarge, enabling them to hold more sperm. Large amounts of sperm allow a male to wash away the previous suitor's sperm, while leaving some of his own for fertilization. Also, sperm concentration markedly increases. Having less sperm for out-of-season social mating means it wastes less. This suggests sperm production is energetically expensive. Males have large testes in relation to their body size.[69]

During the breeding season, males compete for access to females. Such competition can take the form of fighting other males or of herding females to prevent access by other males.[70][71] In Shark Bay, male bottlenose dolphins have been observed working in pairs or larger groups to follow and/or restrict the movement of a female for weeks at a time, waiting for her to become sexually receptive.[70][72] These coalitions, also known as male reproductive alliances, will fight with other coalitions for control of females.[72]

Mating occurs belly to belly.[71] Dolphins have been observed engaging in intercourse when the females are not in their estrous cycles and cannot produce young, suggesting they may mate for pleasure.[citation needed] The gestation period averages 12 months.[6] Births can occur at any time of year, although peaks occur in warmer months.[2] The young are born in shallow water, sometimes assisted by a (possibly male) "midwife", and usually only a single calf is born.[73] Twins are possible, but rare. Newborn bottlenose dolphins are 0.8–1.4 m (2.6–4.6 ft) long and weigh 9–30 kg (20–66 lb), with Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin infants being generally smaller than common bottlenose dolphin infants.[6] To accelerate nursing, the mother can eject milk from her mammary glands. The calf suckles for 18 months to up to 8 years,[74] and continues to closely associate with its mother for several years after weaning.[24] Females sexually mature at ages 5–13, males at ages 9–14.[2] Females reproduce every two to six years.[6] Georgetown University professor Janet Mann argues the strong personal behavior among male calves is about bond formation and benefits the species in an evolutionary context. She cites studies showing these dolphins as adults are inseparable, and that early bonds aid protection, as well as in locating females.[75]

Social interaction

File:Bottlenose dolphin with young.JPG

Adult males live mostly alone or in groups of two to three, and join pods for short periods of time. Adult female and young dolphins normally live in groups of up to 15 animals.[6] However, they live in fission-fusion societies of varying group size, within which individuals change associations, often on a daily or hourly basis.[76][77] Group compositions are usually determined by sex, age, reproductive condition, familial relations and affiliation histories. In a dolphin community near Sarasota, the most common group types are adults females with their recent offspring, older subadults of both sexes and adult males either alone or in bonded pairs.[78] Smaller groups can join to form larger groups of 100 or more, and occasionally exceed 1,000.[6] The social strategies of marine mammals such as bottlenose dolphins "provide interesting parallels" with the social strategies of elephants and chimpanzees.[79]:519

Bottlenose dolphins studied by Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute researchers off the island of Sardinia show random social behavior while feeding, and their social behavior does not depend on feeding activity.[80] In Sardinia, the presence of a floating marine fin-fish farm has been linked to a change in bottlenose dolphin distribution as a result of high fish density around the floating cages in the farming area.[81]



A dolphin's diet consists mainly of small fish, crustaceans, and squid.[2][6] Although this varies by location, many populations share an appetite for fish from the mullet, the tuna and mackerel, and the drum and croaker families.[2] Its cone-like teeth serve to grasp, but do not chew food.[82][83] When they encounter a shoal of fish, they work as a team to herd them towards the shore to maximize the harvest.[6] They also hunt alone, often targeting bottom-dwelling species. The bottlenose dolphin sometimes hits a fish with its fluke, sometimes knocking it out of the water, using a strategy called "fish whacking".[25][84] "Strand feeding", is an inherited feeding technique used by bottlenose dolphins near and around coastal regions of Georgia and South Carolina. When a pod finds a school of fish, they will circle the school and trap the fish in a mini whirlpool. Then, the dolphins will charge at the school and push their bodies up onto a mud-flat, forcing the fish on the mud-flat, as well. The dolphins then crawl around on their sides, consuming the fish they washed up on shore.[citation needed]

Bottlenose dolphins conflict with small-scale coastal commercial fisheries in some Mediterranean areas. Common bottlenose dolphins are probably attracted to fishing nets because they offer a concentrated food source.[85]

Relations with other species


Dolphins can exhibit altruistic behaviour toward other sea creatures. On Mahia Beach, New Zealand, on March 10, 2008,[86] two pygmy sperm whales, a female and calf, stranded on the beach. Rescuers, including Department of Conservation officer Malcolm Smith, attempted to refloat them four times. Shortly, a playful bottlenose dolphin known to local residents as Moko arrived and, after apparently vocalizing at the whales, led them 200 m (660 ft) along a sandbar to the open sea, saving them from imminent euthanasia.[87]

The bottlenose dolphin can behave aggressively. Males fight for rank and access to females. During mating season, males compete vigorously with each other through displays of toughness and size, with a series of acts, such as head-butting. They display aggression towards sharks and smaller dolphin species. At least one population, off Scotland, has practiced infanticide, and also has attacked and killed harbour porpoises. University of Aberdeen researchers say the dolphins do not eat their victims, but are simply competing for food.[88] However, Dr. Read of Duke University, a porpoise expert researching similar cases of porpoise killings that had occurred in Virginia in 1996 and 1997, holds a different view. He states dolphins and porpoises feed on different types of fish, thus food competition is an unlikely cause of the killings.[89] Similar behaviour has been observed in Ireland.[90] In the first half of July, 2014, four attacks with three Porpoise fatalities were observed and caught on video by the Cardigan Bay Marine Wildlife Centre in the Cardigan Bay.[91]

The bottlenose dolphin sometimes forms mixed species groups with other species from the dolphin family, particularly larger species, such as the short-finned pilot whale, the false killer whale and Risso's dolphin.[70][92][93] They also interact with smaller species, such as the Atlantic spotted dolphin and the rough-toothed dolphin.[70][94] While interactions with smaller species are sometimes affiliative, they can also be hostile.[70]


Some large shark species, such as the tiger shark, the dusky shark, the great white shark and the bull shark, prey on the bottlenose dolphin, especially calves.[71][95][96][97][98] The bottlenose dolphin is capable of defending itself by charging the predator; dolphin 'mobbing' behavior of sharks can occasionally prove fatal for the shark.[95] Targeting a single adult dolphin can be dangerous for a shark of similar size. Killer whale populations in New Zealand and Peru have been observed preying on bottlenose dolphins, but this seems rare,[95] and other orcas may swim with dolphins. Swimming in pods allows dolphins to better defend themselves against predators. Bottlenose dolphins either use complex evasive strategies to outswim their predators, or mobbing techniques to battle the predator to death or force it to flee.

Relation to humans


File:Bottlenose Dolphin -Notojima Aquarium -Ishikawa -Japan-8a.jpg

The species sometimes shows curiosity towards humans in or near water. Occasionally, they rescue injured divers by raising them to the surface. They also do this to help injured members of their own species.[95] In November 2004, a dramatic report of dolphin intervention came from New Zealand. Four lifeguards, swimming 100 m (330 ft) off the coast near Whangarei, were approached by a shark (reportedly a great white shark). Bottlenose dolphins herded the swimmers together and surrounded them for 40 minutes, preventing the shark from attacking, as they slowly swam to shore.[99]

In coastal regions, dolphins run the risk of colliding with boats. Researchers of the Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute first quantified data about solitary bottlenose dolphin diving behavior in the presence and absence of boats.[100] Dolphins responded more to tourist than fishing vessels. Driving behavior, speed, engine type and separation distance all affect dolphin safety.

Bottlenose dolphins perform in many aquaria, generating much controversy. Some animal welfare activists claim the dolphins do not have adequate space or receive adequate care or stimulation. However, others counter that the dolphins are properly cared for and enjoy interacting with humans.[95][101]

Eight bottlenose dolphins that lived at the Marine Life Aquarium in Gulfport, Mississippi were swept away from their aquarium pool during Hurricane Katrina. They were later rescued in the Gulf of Mexico.[102]

Therapies for handicapped children can include interactions with bottlenose dolphins.[95]

File:NMMP dolphin with locator.jpeg

The military of the United States and Russia train bottlenose dolphins as military dolphins for wartime tasks, such as locating sea mines and detecting enemy divers.[103][104] The USA's program is the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, located in San Diego.[105]

Commercial 'dolphin encounter' enterprises and tours operate in many countries. The documentary film "the Cove" documents how dolphins are captured and sold to theses enterprises while the remaining pod is slaughtered. In addition to such endeavors, the animals swim with and surface near surfers at the beach.[106]

In the town of Laguna in south Brazil, a pod of bottlenose dolphins drives fish towards fishermen who stand at the beach in shallow waters. One dolphin then rolls over, after which the fishermen throw out their nets. The dolphins feed on the escaping fish. The dolphins were not trained for this behavior; the collaboration began before 1847. Similar cooperative fisheries also exist in Mauritania, Africa.[107]

Cultural influence

The popular television show Flipper, created by Ivan Tors, portrayed a bottlenose dolphin[108] in a friendly relationship with two boys, Sandy and Bud. A seagoing Lassie, Flipper understood English and was a hero: "Go tell Dad we're in trouble, Flipper! Hurry!" The show's theme song contains the lyric "no one you see / is smarter than he". The television show was based on a 1963 film, and was remade as a feature film in 1996, starring Elijah Wood and Paul Hogan, as well as a second series running from 1995 to 2000, starring Jessica Alba.[109]

Other television appearances by bottlenose dolphins include Dolphin Cove, seaQuest DSV, and The Penguins of Madagascar, in which a dolphin, Doctor Blowhole, is a villain. In the HBO movie Zeus and Roxanne, a female bottlenose dolphin befriends a male dog, and in Bermuda Triangle, a girl named Annie (played by Lisa Jakub) swims with dolphins. Human and dolphin interaction segments shot on location in the Florida Keys with Dolphin Research Center as seen on Sesame Street and in a Halloween episode of The Simpsons.[citation needed]

Dolphin Tale, directed by Charles Martin Smith, starring Nathan Gamble, Ashley Judd, Harry Connick, Jr., Morgan Freeman, Cozi Zuehlsdorff and Kris Kristofferson, is based on the real-life story of the dolphin Winter, who was rescued from a crab trap in December 2005 and lost her tail, but has learned to swim with a prosthetic one. Dolphin Tale 2, a sequel to the 2011 film, featured another dolphin named Hope and an appearance by Bethany Hamilton. The sequel was released on September 12, 2014.[citation needed]

Bottlenose dolphins have appeared in novels. In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy and one of its sequels, So Long, and Thanks For All the Fish, the dolphins try to warn humans of Earth's impending destruction, but their behavior was misinterpreted as playful acrobatics. Bottlenose dolphins are central to David Brin's series of Uplift Universe novels, particularly Startide Rising, where they are one of the four Earth species (along with chimpanzees, gorillas, and dogs) to have been 'uplifted' to sentience. Bottlenose dolphins are primary characters in Anne McCaffrey's Dragonriders of Pern series, especially The Dolphins of Pern. Bottlenose dolphins are incorporated into the science fiction video game series Ecco the Dolphin. Delphineus, a dolphin, is featured in the video game EcoQuest: The Search for Cetus, helping the boy, Adam, to find the sea king Cetus (a sperm whale), as well as assisting in cleaning up the underwater environment where he lives. Dolphins are protagonists of Tui Allen's novel Ripple: A Dolphin Love Story,[110] a fictional account of ancient dolphin culture. Two dolphins appeared in the film Jaws 3-D protecting Kathryn Morgan (portrayed by Bess Armstrong), the marine biologist, from shark attacks.[citation needed]

The Miami Dolphins NFL franchise uses the bottlenose dolphin as its mascot and team logo.

Factual descriptions of the dolphins date back into antiquity – the writings of Aristotle, Oppian and Pliny the Elder all mention the species.[2][111]


Bottlenose dolphins are still killed in dolphin drive hunts for their meat or to eliminate competition for fish.[112] Bottlenose dolphins (and several other dolphin species) often travel with tuna, and can get caught in tuna nets, which can kill the dolphins.[27][113] Boycotts of tuna products led to the concept of "dolphin-safe" labeling for fishing methods that avoid endangering dolphins.[113]

The man-made chemical perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) may be compromising the immune system of bottlenose dolphins.[114] PFOS affects the immune system of male mice at a concentration of 91.5 ppb,[115] while PFOS has been reported in bottlenose dolphins in excess of 1 ppm.[116] High levels of metal contaminants have been measured in tissues in many areas of the globe. A recent study found high levels of cadmium and mercury in bottlenose dolphins from South Australia,[117] levels which were later found to be associated with kidney malformations, indicating possible health effects of high heavy metal concentrations in dolphins.[118]



Bottlenose dolphins are not endangered. Their future is stable because of their abundance and adaptability. However, specific populations are threatened due to various environmental changes. The population in the Moray Firth in Scotland is estimated to consist of around 150 animals, and is declining by around 6% per year from harassment, traumatic injury, water pollution and reduction in food availability. Likewise, an isolated population in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand, is in decline due to calf loss coincident to an increase in warm freshwater discharge into the fjord.[119] Less local climate change, such as increasing water temperature may also play a role but has never been shown to be the case.[120]

In US waters, hunting and harassing of marine mammals is forbidden in almost all circumstances.

See also



  1. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named msw3
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Wells, R. and Scott, M. (2002). "Bottlenose Dolphins". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 122–127. ISBN 0-12-551340-2. 
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ Rice, Dale W (1998). Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution (Special Publication). Society of Marine Mammalogy. ISBN 1-891276-03-4. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Shirihai, H. and Jarrett, B. (2006). Whales Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals of the World. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. pp. 155–161. ISBN 0-691-12757-3. 
  7. ^ a b Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  8. ^ "Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna" (PDF). April 2000. Retrieved October 1, 2008. 
  9. ^ Shirihai, H. and Jarrett, B. (2006). Whales Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals of the World. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. pp. 159–161. ISBN 0-691-12757-3. 
  10. ^ Charlton-Robb, K; Gershwin L; Thompson R; Austin J; Owen K; et al. (2011). "A New Dolphin Species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., Endemic to Southern Australian Coastal Waters". PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science. 6 (9): e24047. PMC 3173360Freely accessible. PMID 21935372. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024047. 
  11. ^ "Catalog of Living Whales". Retrieved October 1, 2008. 
  12. ^ a b c "Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): Western North Atlantic Offshore Stock" (PDF). Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  13. ^ "Tursiops truncatus: Species Information". IUCN. Retrieved November 3, 2006. 
  14. ^ LeDuc R.G., Perrin W.F. and Dizon A.E. (1999). "Phylogenetic relationships among the delphinids cetaceans based on full cytochrome b sequences". Marine Mammal Science. 15 (3): 619–648. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1999.tb00833.x. 
  15. ^ Leduc, R., Perrin, W. & Dizon, E. (August 18, 1998). "Phylogenetic Relationships among the Delphinid Cetaceans Based on Full Cytochrome B Sequences". Marine Mammal Science. 15 (3): 619–648. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1999.tb00833.x. 
  16. ^ Reeves, R.; Stewart, B.; Clapham, P.; Powell, J. (2002). Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. New York: A.A. Knopf. p. 422. ISBN 0-375-41141-0. 
  17. ^ "Risso's Dolphin". American Cetacean Society. Retrieved September 20, 2008. 
  18. ^ Lee, Jaennette (April 15, 2005). "Whale-Dolphin Hybrid Has Baby 'Wholphin'". Associated Press. Retrieved September 20, 2008. 
  19. ^ "The Mammals of Texas – Rough-toothed Dolphin". Retrieved September 20, 2008. 
  20. ^ "Robin's Island Database about captive Dolphins and Whales". Retrieved September 20, 2008. 
  21. ^ Zornetzer H.R.; Duffield D.A. (2003). "Captive-born bottlenose dolphin × common dolphin (Tursiops truncatus × Delphinus capensis) intergeneric hybrids". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 81 (10): 1755–1762. doi:10.1139/z03-150. 
  22. ^ Herzing, D., Moewe, K., & Brunnick, B. (2003). "Interspecies interactions between Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis and bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, on Great Bahama Bank, Bahamas" (PDF). Aquatic Mammals. 29 (3): 335–341. doi:10.1578/01675420360736505. Retrieved September 20, 2008. 
  23. ^ American Cetacean Society Fact Sheet – Bottlenose Dolphin
  24. ^ a b c Reeves, R.; Stewart, B.; Clapham, P.; Powell, J. (2002). National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. New York: A. A. Knopf. pp. 362–365. ISBN 0-375-41141-0. 
  25. ^ a b "Office of Protected Resources – Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)". 
  26. ^ "Bottlenose Dolphins – Longevity and Causes of Death". Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  27. ^ a b "Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus at". 
  28. ^ Tabuchi, Hiroko (2006). "Dolphin reveals an extra set of 'legs'". Associated Press. 
  29. ^ a b "Adaptations for an aquatic environment". Busch Gardens. Retrieved March 14, 2008. 
  30. ^ Hersh, Sandra L.; Deborah A. Duffield (1990). "Distinction Between Northwest Atlantic Offshore and Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins Based on Hemoglobin Profile and Morphometry". In Stephen Leatherwood and Randall R. Reeves. The Bottlenose Dolphin. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 129–139. ISBN 0-12-440280-1. 
  31. ^ Goforth, Harold W., Jr. (1990) "Ergometry (Exercise Testing) of the Bottlenose Dolphin." In The Bottlenose Dolphin, edited by Stephen Leatherwood and Randall R. Reeves, pp. 559–574. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc., ISBN 0-12-440280-1.
  32. ^ Fish, F. E. and Hui, C. A. (1991). "Dolphin swimming – a review". Mammal Review. 21 (4): 181–195. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.1991.tb00292.x. 
  33. ^ Au, Whitlow (1993). The Sonar of Dolphins. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-97835-6. 
  34. ^ Pack AA, Herman LM (1995). "Sensory integration in the bottlenosed dolphin: immediate recognition of complex shapes across the senses of echolocation and vision". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 98 (2 Pt 1): 722–33. PMID 7642811. doi:10.1121/1.413566. 
  35. ^ Herman, L. M.; Peacock, M. F., Yunker, M. P. & Madsen, C. (1975). "Bottlenosed dolphin: Double-slit pupil yields equivalent aerial and underwater diurnal acuity". Science. 139 (4203): 650–652. PMID 1162351. doi:10.1126/science.1162351.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  36. ^ a b c d "Dolphin Characteristics". Retrieved August 31, 2008. 
  37. ^ "Bottlenose Dolphins: Animal information, pictures, map". National Geographic. Archived from the original on October 23, 2006. Retrieved November 3, 2006. 
  38. ^ Janik VM, Slater PJB (1998). "Context-specific use suggests that bottlenose dolphin signature whistles are cohesion calls". Animal Behaviour. 56 (4): 829–838. PMID 9790693. doi:10.1006/anbe.1998.0881. 
  39. ^ a b Díaz López, B. and Shirai, J.A.B. (2009). Mediterranean common bottlenose dolphin's repertoire and communication use. Dolphins: Anatomy, Behavior and Threats. pp. 129–148. ISBN 978-1-60876-849-3. 
  40. ^ Díaz López (2010). "Whistle characteristics in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mediterranean Sea: Influence of behaviour". Mammalian Biology. 76 (2): 180–189. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2010.06.006. 
  41. ^ Herman LM, Richards DG, Wolz JP (1984). "Comprehension of sentences by bottlenosed dolphins". Cognition. 16 (2): 129–219. PMID 6540652. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(84)90003-9. 
  42. ^ Reiss D, McCowan B (1993). "Spontaneous vocal mimicry and production by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): evidence for vocal learning". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 107 (3): 301–12. PMID 8375147. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.107.3.301. 
  43. ^ "The Dolphin Institute – Behavioral Mimicry". Retrieved August 31, 2008. 
  44. ^ Herman, L. (2002). "Language Learning". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 685–689. ISBN 0-12-551340-2. 
  45. ^ "The Dolphin Institute – Understanding Language". Retrieved September 31, 2008.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  46. ^ a b Herman, L., Pack, A. & Wood, A. (August 26, 2006). "Bottlenose Dolphins Can Generalize Rules and Develop Abstract Concepts". Marine Mammal Science. 10 (1): 70–80. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1994.tb00390.x. 
  47. ^ "The Dolphin Institute – Awareness of One's Own Recent Behaviors". Retrieved August 31, 2008. 
  48. ^ Herman LM, Gordon JA (1974). "Auditory delayed matching in the bottlenose dolphin". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 21 (1): 19–26. PMC 1333166Freely accessible. PMID 4204143. doi:10.1901/jeab.1974.21-19. 
  49. ^ "The Dolphin Institute – Awareness of One's Own Body Parts". Retrieved August 31, 2008. 
  50. ^ "The Dolphin Institute – Pointing Gestures". Retrieved August 31, 2008. 
  51. ^ "Intelligence and Humans". Retrieved August 11, 2008. 
  52. ^ Marten, K. & Psarakos, S. (1995). "Evidence of self-awareness in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)". In Parker, S. T., Mitchell, R. & Boccia, M. Self-awareness in Animals and Humans: Developmental Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. pp. 361–379. ISBN 978-0-521-44108-7. Retrieved October 4, 2008. 
  53. ^ A dolphin was shown two panels with varying numbers of dots of different size and position. The dolphin was able to touch the panel with the greater number. "Can Dolphins Count?". Retrieved August 31, 2008. 
  54. ^ Smolker, R.A.; et al. (1997). "Sponge Carrying by Dolphins (Delphinidae, Tursiops sp.): A Foraging Specialization Involving Tool Use?". Ethology. 103 (6): 454–465. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1997.tb00160.x. 
  55. ^ Krutzen M, Mann J, Heithaus MR, Connor RC, Bejder L, Sherwin WB (2005). "Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (25): 8939–8943. PMC 1157020Freely accessible. PMID 15947077. doi:10.1073/pnas.0500232102. 
  56. ^ Lewis, J.S. and Schroeder, W. (2003). "Mud plume feeding, a unique foraging behavior of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in the Florida Keys" (PDF). Gulf of Mexico Science. 21 (1): 92. 
  57. ^ Paula Feldman. "Dinner Is Served!". South Carolina Wildlife Magazine. 
  58. ^ Rendell, L.; Whitehead, H. (2001). "Culture in whales and dolphins". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 24 (2): 309–382. PMID 11530544. doi:10.1017/S0140525X0100396X. 
  59. ^ Premack, D. & Hauser, M. (2001). "A whale of a tale: Calling it culture doesn't help" (PDF). Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 24 (2): 350–351. doi:10.1017/S0140525X01513965. 
  60. ^ "Wild dolphins teaches others tail walking tricks". WDCS, the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. 
  61. ^ a b Dicke, U. and Roth G. (August–September 2008). "Intelligence Evolved". Scientific American Mind: pp. 75–77. 
  62. ^ Roth, Gerhard; Maxim I. Stamenov; Vittorio Gallese (2002). "Is the human brain unique?". Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 63–76. ISBN 978-90-272-5166-4. 
  63. ^ "Bottlenose dolphins". Seaworld. Retrieved March 14, 2008. 
  64. ^ Kooyman, G. (2002). "Diving Physiology". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 339–341. ISBN 0-12-551340-2. 
  65. ^ a b "Dolphin Q&A". Mia Research Foundation. Archived from the original on March 18, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2008. 
  66. ^ "Do whales and dolphins sleep". howstuffworks. Retrieved March 13, 2008. 
  67. ^ Atkinson, S. (2002). "Male Reproductive Systems". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. p. 700. ISBN 0-12-551340-2. 
  68. ^ Stewart, R. (2002). "Female reproductive systems". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 422–428. ISBN 0-12-551340-2. 
  69. ^ Connor Richard C., Peterson, Dawn M. (1994). The Lives of Whales and Dolphins. New York.: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 978-0-8050-1950-6. 
  70. ^ a b c d e Connor, R.; Wells, R.; Mann, J.; Read, A. (2000). "The Bottlenose Dolphin". In Mann, J.; Connor, R.; Tyack, P.; Whitehead, H. Cetacean Societies. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. p. 102. ISBN 0-226-50341-0. 
  71. ^ a b c "Bottlenose Dolphins of Sarasota Bay". Smithsonian National Zoo. 
  72. ^ a b Connor R. C. (1990) Alliances among male bottlenose dolphins and comparative analyses of mutualism. PhD Dissertation. The University of Michigan, Michigan.
  73. ^ Connor, R.; Wells, R.; Mann, J.; Read, A. (2000). "The Bottlenose Dolphin". In Mann, J.; Connor, R.; Tyack, P.; Whitehead, H. Cetacean Societies. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-226-50341-0. 
  74. ^ Mann, J., Connor, R. C., Barre, L. M. & Heithaus, M. R. (2000). "Female reproductive success in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.): Life history, habitat, provisioning,and group size effects". Behavioral Ecology. 11 (2): 210–219. doi:10.1093/beheco/11.2.210. 
  75. ^ Mann, J. (2006). Vasey, P.; Sommer, V, eds. "Homosexual Behaviour in Animals: An Evolutionary Perspective". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86446-6.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  76. ^ Connor, Richards (2000). Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-50341-7. 
  77. ^ Díaz López, Bruno; Shirai J.A. (2007). "Marine aquaculture and bottlenose dolphins' (Tursiops truncatus) social structure". Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology. 62 (6): 887–894. doi:10.1007/s00265-007-0512-1. 
  78. ^ Wells, R.S., M.D. Scott and A.B. Irvine. (19870 "The social structure of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins", pp. 247–305 in: Genoways, H. (ed.), Current Mammalogy, Vol. 1. New York: Plenum Press.
  79. ^ Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; William F. Perrin; Bernd G. Würsig; J. G. M. Thewissen (2008). "Group behavior". Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2 ed.). United States: Academic Press. pp. 511–520. ISBN 0-12-373553-X. 
  80. ^ Díaz López, Bruno; Shirai J.B. (2008). "Marine aquaculture off Sardinia Island (Italy):ecosystem effects evaluated through a trophic mass-balance model". Ecological Modelling. 212 (3–4): 292–303. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.10.028. 
  81. ^ Díaz López, Bruno; Shirai J.B. (2006). "Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presence and incidental capture in a marine fish farm on the north-eastern coast of Sardinia (Italy)". Journal of Marine Biological Ass. UK. 87 (1): 113–117. doi:10.1017/S0025315407054215. 
  82. ^ "Dolphins – Skeletal Structure". Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  83. ^ "Bottlenose Dolphins – Physical Characteristics". Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  84. ^ "Comparative Mammalian Brain Collections – Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)". Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  85. ^ Díaz López, Bruno (2006). "Interaction between bottlenose dolphins and fisheries off Sardinia". ICES Journal of Marine Science. 63 (5): 946–951. doi:10.1016/j.icesjms.2005.06.012. 
  86. ^ "Dolphin rescues stranded whales". CNN. March 12, 2008. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. 
  87. ^ Brooks, David (March 12, 2008). "Dolphin rescues beached whales". Herald Sun (Australia).,21985,23362100-5005961,00.html. 
  88. ^ Read, Andrew (1999). Porpoises. Stillwater, MN, USA: Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-89658-420-8. 
  89. ^ "Evidence Puts Dolphins in New Light, as Killers". July 6, 1999. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  90. ^ Ryan, Conor (2008). "Attack on Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena (L. 1758) by Bottle-nosed Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus (Montagu 1821)". Irish Naturalists' Journal. 29 (2): 130. 
  91. ^ Dolphin attacks on porpoises baffle experts BBC News, July 15, 2014
  92. ^ Reeves, R.; Stewart, B.; Clapham, P.; Powell, J. (2002). Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. New York: A.A. Knopf. p. 434. ISBN 0-375-41141-0. 
  93. ^ "Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): California/Oregon/Washington Offshore Stock" (PDF). Retrieved September 21, 2008. 
  94. ^ Shirihai, H. and Jarrett, B. (2006). Whales Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals of the World. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. p. 166. ISBN 0-691-12757-3. 
  95. ^ a b c d e f "Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)". Animal Corner. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  96. ^ Heithaus, M. & Dill, L. (2002). "Food Availability and Tiger Shark Predation Risk Influence Bottlenose Dolphin Habitat Use". Ecology. 83 (2): 480–491. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[0480:FAATSP]2.0.CO;2. 
  97. ^ Gannon, D., Barros, N., Nowacek, D., Read, A., Waples, D. & Wells, R. (2004). "Prey detection by bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus: an experimental test of the passive listening hypothesis". Animal Behavior. 69 (3): 709–720. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.06.020. 
  98. ^ Eisfeld, S (October 2003). "The social affiliation and group composition of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the outer southern Moray Firth, NE Scotland" (PDF). MSc Thesis, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor. p. 42. 
  99. ^ Thomson, Ainsley (November 25, 2004). "Dolphins saved us from shark, lifeguards say". The New Zealand Herald. 
  100. ^ Diaz Lopez, B.; Shirai, J.A.; Prieto, A.; Fernández, P. (2008). "Diving activity of a solitary wild free ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)" (PDF). Journal of Marine Biological Association U.K. 88 (6): 1153–1157. doi:10.1017/S0025315408000921. 
  101. ^ Alave, Kristine L. (September 12, 2007). "Animal rights groups rap Pasig dolphin show". 
  102. ^ "Katrina dolphin rescue launched". BBC. September 15, 2005. Retrieved February 14, 2008. 
  103. ^ "Dolphins Deployed as Undersea Agents in Iraq". National Geographic. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  104. ^ Rehn, KW; Riggs, PK (2002). "Non-Lethal Swimmer Neutralization Study". U.S. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Technical Report. Document Number 3138. Retrieved September 25, 2008. 
  105. ^ "U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program Web Site". U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program. Retrieved January 18, 2000.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  106. ^ Dolphins and porspoises. Australian Government: Dept. of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Retrieved October 24, 2008
  107. ^ "Bottlenose Dolphin". Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved August 11, 2008. 
  108. ^ "American Cetacean Society – Bottlenose Dolphin". Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008. 
  109. ^ "Flipper (1995)". IMDb. Retrieved November 3, 2006. 
  110. ^ "Ripple: A Dolphin Love Story". Goodreads. Retrieved June 15, 2014. 
  111. ^ Constantine, R. (2002). "Folklore and Legends". In Perrin, W., Würsig, B. & Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. p. 448. ISBN 0-12-551340-2. 
  112. ^ Kenyon, P. (November 8, 2004). "Dining with the Dolphin Hunters". BBC News. Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  113. ^ a b "The Dolphin Institute – Threats to the Bottlenose Dolphin and Other Marine Mammals". Retrieved September 30, 2008. 
  114. ^ Betts KS (May 2007). "Perfluoroalkyl Acids: What Is the Evidence Telling Us?". Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (5): A250–A256. PMC 1867999Freely accessible. PMID 17520044. doi:10.1289/ehp.115-a250. 
  115. ^ Betts KS (2008). "Not immune to PFOS effects?". Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (7): A290. PMC 2453185Freely accessible. PMID 18629339. doi:10.1289/ehp.116-a290a. 
  116. ^ Houde M, Martin JW, Letcher RJ, Solomon KR, Muir DC (2006). "Biological monitoring of polyfluoroalkyl substances: A review". Environmental Science & Technology. 40 (11): 3463–73. PMID 16786681. doi:10.1021/es052580b. 
  117. ^ Lavery TJ, Butterfield N, Kemper CM, Reid RJ, Sanderson K (2008). "Metals and selenium in the liver and bone of three dolphin species from South Australia, 1988–2004". The Science of the Total Environment. 390 (1): 77–85. PMID 18006044. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.09.016. 
  118. ^ Lavery TJ, Kemper CM, Sanderson K; et al. (2009). "Heavy metal toxicity of kidney and bone tissues in South Australian adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus)". Marine Environmental Research. 67 (1): 1–7. PMID 19012959. doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.09.005. 
  119. ^ Currey RJC, Dawson SM, Slooten E, Schneider K, Lusseau D, Boisseau OJ, Haase P, Williams JA (November 25, 2008). "Survival rates for a declining population of bottlenose dolphins in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand: an information theoretic approach to assessing the role of human impacts". Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 19 (6): 658–670. doi:10.1002/aqc.1015. 
  120. ^ Curran, S., Wilson, B. and Thompson, P (1996). "Recommendations for the sustainable management of the bottlenose dolphin population in the Moray Firth". Scottish Natural Heritage Review. 56. 

Further Reading

External links

Hartmann zebra hobatere S This article is part of Project Mammal Genera, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on each genus, including made-up genera.
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.