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Bustards
File:Kori Bustard.png
Kori Bustard
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Otidimorphae
Order: Otidiformes
Wagler, 1830
Family: Otididae
Rafinesque, 1815

Bustards, including floricans and korhaans, are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They make up the family Otididae (formerly known as Otidae).

Bustards are all fairly large and two species, the Kori Bustard and the Great Bustards are frequently cited as the world's heaviest flying birds, since both may exceed 20 kg (44 lbs). The smallest species is the Little Brown Bustard, which is about 40 cm (16 in) and 600 grams (1.3 lbs) on average. In all bustards, males are substantially larger than females, often about 30% longer and twice the weight. They are among the most sexually dimorphic groups of birds.

Bustards are omnivorous, feeding principally on seeds and invertebrates. They make their nests on the ground, making their eggs and offspring often very vulnerable to predation. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. Most prefer to run or walk over flying. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays, such as inflating throat sacs or elevating elaborate feathered crests. The female lays three to five dark, speckled eggs in a scrape in the ground, and incubates them alone.[1]

Bustards are gregarious outside the breeding season, but are very wary and difficult to approach in the open habitats they prefer.[2]

Status

Most species are declining or endangered through habitat loss and hunting, even where they are nominally protected.[2] The last bustard in Britain died in approximately 1832, but the bird is being reintroduced through batches of chicks imported from Russia;[2] two great bustard eggs were recently laid in Britain for the first time in over 150 years,[3] but were unfertilized – probably owing to the still juvenile male population.

Floricans

Some Indian bustards are also called Floricans. The origin of the name is unclear. Thomas C. Jerdon writes in The Birds of India (1862)

I have not been able to trace the origin of the Anglo-Indian word Florikin, but was once informed that the Little Bustard in Europe was sometimes called Flanderkin. Latham gives the word Flercher as an English name, and this, apparently, has the same origin as Florikin.
— Jerdon's Birds of India, 2nd ed. ii. 625.

The Hobson-Jobson dictionary however casts doubt on this theory stating that

We doubt if Jerdon has here understood Latham correctly. What Latham writes is, in describing the Passarage Bustard, which, he says, is the size of the Little Bustard: Inhabits India. Called Passarage Plover. … I find that it is known in India by the name of Oorail; by some of the English called Flercher. (Suppt. to Gen. Synopsis of Birds, 1787, 229. Here we understand the English to be the English in India, and Flercher to be a clerical error for some form of floriken.

Species in taxonomic order

Species in taxonomic order

style="text-align:center; background:#Template:Otidiformes colour light;" colspan="6"|Species of Lissotis in TiF order[4] <br

6 species

Lissotis
Reichenbach, 1848
Black-bellied bustard TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status

Black-bellied Bustard

Lissotis melanogaster
(Rüppell, 1835)








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Hartlaub's Bustard

Lissotis hartlaubii
(Heuglin, 1863)








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Ardeotis
Heron-like bustard TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status Image Distribution map Other links

Nubian Bustard

Ardeotis nuba









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Denham's Bustard

Stanley's Bustard (A. d. stanleyi)
Jackson's Bustard (A. d. jacksoni)
Ardeotis denhami









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Ludwig's Bustard

Ardeotis ludwigii









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Heuglin's Bustard

Ardeotis heuglinii









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Arabian Bustard

Ardeotis arabs









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Kori Bustard

Ardeotis kori









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Great Indian Bustard

Ardeotis nigriceps









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Australian Bustard

Ardeotis australis









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Tetrax
Little Bustard TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status Image Distribution map Other links

Little Bustard

Tetrax tetrax









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Otis
Linneaus, 1758
Great Bustard TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status Image Distribution map Other links

Great Bustard

Otis tarda
Linneaus, 1758








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Chlamydotis
Houbara TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status Image Distribution map Other links

Houbara Bustard

African Houbara
Chlamydotis undulata









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Macqueen's Bustard

Asian Houbara
Chlamydotis macqueenii









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Houbaropsis
Bengal Florican TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status Image Distribution map Other links

Bengal Florican

Houbaropsis bengalensis









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Sypheotides
Lesser Florican TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status Image Distribution map Other links

Lesser Florican

Sypheotides indicus









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Lophotis
Crested bustard TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status Image Distribution map Other links

Red-crested Korhaan

Lophotis ruficrista









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Savile's Bustard

Lophotis savilei









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Buff-crested Bustard

Lophotis gindiana









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Heterotetrax
[[]] TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status Image Distribution map Other links

Little Brown Bustard

Heterotetrax humilis









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Rueppell's Korhaan / Rüppell's Korhaan

Ruepell's Bustard / Rüppell's Bustard
Heterotetrax rueppelii









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Karoo Korhaan

Karoo Bustard
Heterotetrax vigorsii









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Afrotis
Black-korhaan TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status Image Distribution map Other links

Northern Black-Korhaan

Afrotis afraoides









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Southern Black-Korhaan

Afrotis afra









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Eupodotis
[[]] TiF
Species (author[s]) Common name(s) Status Image Distribution map Other links

Blue Korhaan

Blue Bustard
Eupodotis caerulescens









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White-bellied Bustard

Eupodotis senegalensis









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Notes

  1. ^ Archibald, George W. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph, ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 1-85391-186-0. 
  2. ^ a b c Bota, G., J. Camprodon, S. Mañosa & M.B. Morales (Editores). (2005). Ecology and Conservation of steppe-land birds. Lynx Editions. Barcelona ISBN 84-87334-99-7; 978-84-87334-99-3.
  3. ^ [1] http://www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/bustard-eggs.html
  4. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named TiF19

References

  • Bota, Gerard, et al. Ecology and conservation of Steppe-Land birds. International Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of Steppe-land birds. Lynx Edicions 2005. 343 pages. ISBN 84-87334-99-7.
  • 12px Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Bustard". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Knox, Alan G.; Martin Collinson, Andreas J. Helbig, David T. Parkin & George Sangster (2002). "Taxonomic recommendations for British birds". Ibis. 144 (4): 707–710. doi:10.1046/j.1474-919X.2002.00110.x.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  • Sibley, Charles G.; Jon E. Ahlquist (1990). Phylogeny and Classification of the Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04085-7.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)

External links


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