File:Cardellina rubrifrons.jpg
Red-faced Warbler (Cardellina rubifrons)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Inopinaves
Order: Passeriformes
Suborder: Passeri
Clade: Nine-primaried oscines
Epifamily: Icteroidae
Clade: Blackbird and warbler group
Subfamily: Basileuterinae
Genus: Cardellina
Bonaparte, 1850[1]

Cardellina is a genus of birds of the New World warbler family Parulidae. Most classification systems list at least five species.,[2] however the South American Classification Committee of the AOU continue to list Wilson's warbler and Canada warbler in the genus Wilsonia.


Recent genetic research has however suggested that the type species of Wilsonia (Hooded Warbler W. citrina) and of Setophaga (American Redstart S. ruticilla) are closely related and should be merged into the same genus. As the name Setophaga (published in 1827) takes priority over Wilsonia (published in 1838), Hooded Warbler would then be transferred as Setophaga citrina. Where this is accepted, the other two Wilsonia species are then transferred to their next-most closely related genus, Cardellina.[3] This change has been accepted by the AOU,[4] but has not yet been taken up by the IOC.[5]

List of species

The following species are currently recognized:[2][6]

The former Wilsonia breed in North America. They are migratory, wintering south of their breeding ranges in Central America, the West Indies or South America. Wilsonia warblers are 12–13 centimetres (4.7–5.1 in) long. They have yellow underparts and black head markings in at least the adult male plumage. Two species have plain olive green-brown back, but the Canada Warbler has grey upperparts and is also migrates much further than the other species in the genus.

The breeding habitat is broadleaved woodlands with dense undergrowth. These birds nest low in a bush or on the ground, laying 3–6 eggs in a cup nest.

Wilsonia warblers feed on insects, often caught by flycatching, and they have distinctive songs and loud chip calls.


  1. ^ "Cardellina". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, B.L. Sullivan, C. L. Wood, & D. Roberson. (2012). The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.7.
  3. ^ Lovette, I. J. et al. (2010). A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57 (2): 753-770. Abstract
  4. ^ Chesser, R. T. et al. (2011). Fifty-Second Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 128 (3): 600-613 fulltext
  5. ^ IOC World Bird List Family Parulidae
  6. ^ John H. Boyd III (September 12, 2011). "CORE PASSEROIDEA IV: Emberizidae and Passerellidae". TiF Checklist. Retrieved 31-03-2020.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)


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