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Diving petrel
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Peruvian Diving Petrel, Pelecanoides garnotii
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Aequorlitornithes
Clade: Ardeae
Clade: Aequornithes
Clade: Austrodyptornithes
Order: Procellariiformes
Subfamily: Pelecanoidinae
Genus: Pelecanoides
Lacépède, 1799
Species

Pelecanoides garnotii
Pelecanoides magellani
Pelecanoides georgicus
Pelecanoides urinatrix

The diving petrels are seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. There are four very similar species all in the genus Pelecanoides, distinguished only by small differences in the coloration of their plumage and their bill construction.

Taxonomy

Prum et al. found them embedded within Procellariidae.

Systematics and evolution

Some studies published on the phylogeny of the petrels suggests that the diving petrels are actually members of the family Procellariidae, and some taxonomic works treat them as such.[1]

The five species are:

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Peruvian Diving-Petrel

Peruvian Diving-Petrel

Pelecanoides garnotii Peruvian Diving-Petrel Peru and Chile
Magellanic Diving-Petrel

Magellanic Diving-Petrel

Pelecanoides magellani Magellanic Diving-Petrel southernmost South America
South Georgia Diving-Petrel

South Georgia Diving-Petrel

Pelecanoides georgicus South Georgia Diving-Petrel South Georgia in the south Atlantic and on the Prince Edward Islands, Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands and Heard Island and McDonald Islands in the southern Indian Ocean
Common Diving-Petrel

Common Diving-Petrel

Pelecanoides urinatrix Common Diving-Petrel South Africa and islands of the southern Indian Ocean, islands and islets off New Zealand and south-eastern Australian islands
Whenua Hou Diving-Petrel

Whenua Hou Diving-Petrel

Pelecanoides whenuahouensis Whenua Hou Diving-Petrel Codfish Island, New Zealand


The evolution and systematics of these birds is not well researched. Several populations were described as distinct species and while most of them are only subspecies, some may indeed be distinct. The prehistoric fossil record was long limited to very fragmentary remains described as P. cymatotrypetes found in Early Pliocene deposits of Langebaanweg, South Africa; while this bird apparently was close to the Common Diving Petrel, no members of the genus are known from South African waters today.[2]

In 2007, a humerus piece from New Zealand was described as P. miokuaka. This was found in Early/Middle Miocene deposits and just as may be expected, it far more resembles diving petrels than any other known bird, but presents a less apomorphic condition.[3]

Description and morphology

Diving petrels are auk-like small petrels of the southern oceans. The resemblances with the auks are due to convergent evolution, since both families feed by pursuit diving, although some researchers have in the past suggested that the similarities are due to relatedness. Amongst the Procellariiformes the diving petrels are the family most adapted to life in the sea rather than flying over it, and are generally found closer inshore than other families in the order.

The diving petrels are small petrels that measure between 19–23 cm (7.5–9 in) and weigh between 120-200 g (4-7 oz). They are highly uniform in appearance, and very difficult to separate when seen at sea. They are best separated by the size and shape of their short bills. The plumage is shining black on the top and white on the underside. Their wings are short, particularly with regards to overall body size, and used in a highly characteristic whirring flight. This flight is low over the water and diving petrels will fly through the crests of waves without any interruption of their flight path. In the water these wings are half folded and used as paddles to propel the bird after its prey.

Behaviour

Diet

Diving petrels are plankton feeders, taking mostly crustacean prey such as krill, copepods and the amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii, also taking small fish and squid. They have several adaptations for obtaining their prey including short powerful wings, a gular pouch for storing food, and their nostrils open upwards rather than forward pointing as it is in other tubenoses.

Reproduction

These birds nest in colonies on islands. One white egg is laid in a burrow in turf or soft soil that is usually covered with vegetation, feathers, or small rocks. They are nocturnal at the breeding colonies. It has a long period of parental care (around 45 to 60 days) in the burrow, but once the chick fledges out to sea it is on its own.

Status and conservation

Of the four species two, the Peruvian Diving Petrel and the Magellanic Diving Petrel, have highly restricted ranges around South America's coasts, whilst the Common Diving Petrel and the South Georgia Diving Petrel range widely across the southern oceans, breeding on islands off New Zealand, sub-Antarctic islands in the Indian Ocean, and islands in the south Atlantic (like Tristan da Cunha).

Diving petrels are among the world's most numerous birds, with Common and South Georgia Diving Petrels numbering several million pairs each. The Peruvian Diving Petrel, on the other hand, is threatened by guano extraction, introduced species and climate change, and is listed as an endangered species.


Footnotes

  1. ^ Christidis, Les; Boles, Walter (2008). Systematics and taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Vic: CSIRO Publishing. pp. 81–82. ISBN 9780643065116.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  2. ^ Olson (1985)
  3. ^ Worthy, Trevor; Tennyson, Alan J. D.; Jones, C.; McNamara, James A.; Douglas, Barry J. (2007). "Miocene waterfowl and other birds from central Otago, New Zealand". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 5 (1): 1–39. ISSN 1477-2019. doi:10.1017/S1477201906001957.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)

References

  • Olson, Storrs L. (1985): Section X.H.3. Pelecanoididae. In: Farner, D.S.; King, J.R. & Parkes, Kenneth C. (eds.): Avian Biology 8: 79-238. Academic Press, New York.

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