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Florisuginae
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Diversity
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Superorder: Strisores
Order: Apodiformes
Family: Trochilidae
Subfamily: Florisuginae
Jardine, 1833

Topazes and jacobins, Florisuginae is a subfamily of hummingbirds in the Trochilidae family. There are four species in two tribes and genera. The topazes and jacobins represent the oldest split from all other hummingbirds.[1]

Distribution and habitat

They range from Mexico[2] to South America.[2][3][4][5]

Description

Florisugine hummingbirds are medium to large hummingbirds.

Behaviour

Black Jacobin is the most territorial and dominate hummingbird within its range, competing with conspecifcs and individuals of other species at food resources,Farm-Fresh photo[6] but has been observed feeding in mixed-species flocks of other birds.[7]

Diet

The White-necked Jacobin feeds upon flowers of a variety of trees, including Lisianthus axillaris (Gentianaceae), Pseudobombax septenatum (Bombaceae)[8]

The Black Jacobin feeds upon Mabea[9], Hibiscus, Eugenia, Eucalyptus, Erythrina, Calliandra, Dombeya, Schwartzia[10] and Pavonia[11], as well as some bromeliads, including those of the genus Vriesea[12] and Aechmea.[13] It has also been observed feeding on the pink flowers of Dombeya wallichii (Sterculiaceae), but also visits Tabebuia spp. (Bignoniaceae) in urban situations in this region at this season.[14] Feeds on insects in the air, or gleans from leaves and spider webs.


Species in taxonomic order

Species of Topazini
Subspecies Author Image Geographic location
Crimson Topaz, Topaza pella Topaza pella pella Linnaeus, 1758 Topaza pella E Venezuela (E Bolívar) and the Guianas to N & W Brazil (Roraima, NW Pará, Amazonas, Rondônia).[3]
Topaza pella smaragdulus Bosc, 1792 Presumably French Guiana, and N Brazil (Amapá, and C Pará from R Tapajós E to R Xingu).[3]
Topaza pella microrhyncha A. L. Butler, 1926 NE Pará (I de Marajó and area E of R Tocantins), in N Brazil.[3]
Fiery Topaz, Topaza pyra Topaza pyra pyra (Gould, 1846) Topaza Pyra S Venezuela (Amazonas), SE Colombia and NW Brazil.[4]
Topaza pyra amaruni Hu et al., 2000 E Ecuador and NE Peru (Loreto, Ucayali).[4]
Species of Florisugini
Subspecies Author Image Geographic location
White-necked Jacobin, Florisuga mellivora Florisuga mellivora mellivora (Linnaeus, 1758) Florisuga mellivora -Panama-8White-necked Jacobin 1 S Mexico (from S Veracruz and N Oaxaca) to Panama and Colombia, S to W Ecuador, SE Peru and N Bolivia, and E to Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas and Amazonian Brazil.[2]
Florisuga mellivora flabellifera (Gould, 1846) White-necked jacobin (Florisuga mellivora flabellifera) male ToWhite-necked jacobin (Florisuga mellivora flabellifera) female in flight To Tobago.[2]
Black Jacobin, Florisuga fusca Monotypic Vieillot, 1817 Florisuga fusca -Reserva Guainumbi, Sao Luis do Paraitinga, Sao Paulo, Brasil-8 E Brazil (mainly from Bahia S to Rio Grande do Sul) to SE Paraguay, NE Argentina and Uruguay.[5]

References

  1. ^ Fogden, Michael; Taylor, Marianne; Williamson, Sheri L. and the forward by Dunne, Pete (2014). Hummingbirds: A Life-sized Guide to Every Species. Harper Design (An imprint of HarperCollins). ISBN 9780062280640. 
  2. ^ a b c d Stiles, F.G., Kirwan, G.M. & Boesman, P. (2014). White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/55396 on 6 April 2015).
  3. ^ a b c d Schuchmann, K.L., Kirwan, G.M. & Boesman, P. (2015). Crimson Topaz (Topaza pella). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2015). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/55410 on 6 April 2015).
  4. ^ a b c del Hoyo, J., Collar, N., Kirwan, G.M. & Boesman, P. (2015). Fiery Topaz (Topaza pyra). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2015). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/467193 on 6 April 2015).
  5. ^ a b Schuchmann, K.L., Kirwan, G.M. & Boesman, P. (2013). Black Jacobin (Florisuga fusca). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2013). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/55397 on 6 April 2015).
  6. ^ Antunes, A.Z. (2003) Partilha de néctar de Eucalyptus spp., territorialidade e hierarquia de dominância em beija-flores (Aves: Trochilidae) no sudeste do Brasil. Ararajuba 11(1): 39–44.
  7. ^ Aleixo, A. (1997) Composition of mixed-species bird flocks and abundance of flocking species in a semideciduous forest of southeastern Brazil. Ararajuba 5(1): 11–18.
  8. ^ Atwood, J.L., Fitz, V.L. & Bannesberger, J.E. (1991) Temporal patterns of singing activity at leks of the White-bellied Emerald. Wilson Bull. 103(3): 373-386.
  9. ^ Olmos, F. & Boulhosa, R.L.P. (2000) A meeting of opportunists: birds and other visitors to Mabea fistulifera (Euphorbiaceae) inflorescences. Ararajuba 8(2): 93-98.
  10. ^ Rocca, M.A. & Sazima, M. (2008) Ornithophilous canopy species in the Atlantic rain forest of southeastern Brazil. J. Field Orn. 79(2): 130-137.
  11. ^ Vasconcelos, M.F. & Lombardi, J.A. (1999) Padrão sazonal na ocorrência de seis espécies de beija-flores (Apodiformes: Trochilidae) em uma localidade de campo rupestre na Serra do Curral, Minas Gerais. Ararajuba 7(2): 71–79.
  12. ^ Favretto, M.A., Hoeltgebaum, M.P., Lingnau, R. & D’Agostini, F.M. (2010) Beija-flores visitantes de bromélias no Parque Natural Municipal Rio do Peixe, Joaçaba, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Atualidades Ornitológicas 158: 11–13.
  13. ^ Moura, A.S. & Soares Júnior, F.J. (2010) Ornitofilia (polinização por aves) em Aechmea maculata L.B. Smith (Bromeliaceae), registrada em um pequeno fragmento florestal no município de Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Atualidades Ornitológicas 158: 57–60.
  14. ^ Costa, R.G.A. & Costa, R.C.V. (2003) Expansão da distribução geográfica do beija-flor-preto-de-rabo-branco, Melanotrochilus fuscus no Rio Grande do Sul. Atualidades Ornitológicas 116: 3.


Wrybill This article is part of Project Bird Subfamilies, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on each bird subfamily, including made-up families.
Hemipus picatus This article is part of Project Bird Taxonomy, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on every order, family and other taxonomic rank related to birds.
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