FANDOM


m (External links)
m
 
(3 intermediate revisions by one user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
==Other names==
+
{{speciesbox
  +
| name = Great Auk
  +
| fossil_range = {{fossil range|Neogene|0.0001|[[Neogene]] – Late [[Holocene]]|ref=<ref>{{cite book |last1=Finlayson |first1=Clive |title=Avian survivors: The History and Biogeography of Palearctic Birds |date=18 December 2011 |publisher=Bloomsbury Publishing |isbn=9781408137314 |page=157 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=zvnUBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA157&lpg=PA157&dq=great+auk+Mya+25+mya&source=bl&ots=tQ8mNat-B0&sig=ACfU3U11jsmzWa4G75LBgF4-7X05F-N7oA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwib0KWssNrpAhXqTN8KHZyBC34Q6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=great%20auk%20Mya%2025%20mya&f=false}}</ref>}}
  +
| image_upright = 1.1
  +
| image_caption = Specimen No. 8 and replica egg in the [[Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum]], [[Glasgow]]
  +
| image_alt = A large, stuffed bird with a black back, white belly, heavy bill, and white eye patch stands, amongst display cases and an orange wall
  +
| status = EX
  +
| status_system = IUCN3.1
  +
| status_ref = <ref name="IUCN">{{cite iucn|url=https://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22694856/0 |title=''Pinguinus impennis'' |author=BirdLife International |author-link=BirdLife International |year=2012 |accessdate=26 November 2013|ref=harv}}</ref>
  +
| extinct = 1852
  +
| image = Great Auk.png
  +
| genus = Pinguinus
  +
| parent_authority = [[Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre|Bonnaterre]], 1791
  +
| species = impennis
  +
| authority = ([[Carl Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], [[10th edition of Systema Naturae|1758]])
  +
| range_map = GreatAukMap.svg
  +
| range_map_upright = 1.1
  +
| range_map_alt = A map showing the range of the great auk, with the coasts of North America and Europe forming two boundaries, a line stretching from New England to northern Portugal the southern boundary, and the northern boundary wrapping around the southern shore of Greenland
  +
| range_map_caption = Approximate range (in blue) with known breeding sites indicated by yellow marks<ref name="grieve">{{cite book|title=The Great Auk, or Garefowl: Its history, archaeology, and remains|author=Grieve, Symington|year=1885|publisher=Thomas C. Jack, London|url=https://archive.org/details/cihm_06624}}</ref><ref name="parkin">{{cite book|title=The Great Auk, or Garefowl|author=Parkin, Thomas|year=1894|publisher=J.E. Budd, Printer|url=https://archive.org/details/cu31924000574222| accessdate =14 May 2010}}</ref>
  +
| synonyms = {{collapsible list|bullets = true|title=<small>List</small>
  +
|''Alca impennis'' <small>Linnaeus, 1758</small>
  +
|''Plautus impennis'' <small>(Linnaeus, 1758) [[Morten Thrane Brünnich|Brünnich]], 1772</small>
  +
|''Pingouin impennis'' <small>(Linnaeus, 1758) [[Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon|Buffon]], 1817</small>
  +
|''Alca borealis'' <small>[[Johann Reinhold Forster|Forster]], 1817</small>
  +
|''Chenalopex impennis'' <small>(Linnaeus, 1758) Vieillot, 1818</small>
  +
|''Alca major'' <small>Boie, 1822</small>
  +
|''Mataeoptera impennis'' <small>(Linnaeus, 1758) Gloger, 1842</small>}}
  +
}}
  +
The '''Great Auk''' (''Pinguinus impennis'') is a [[species]] of [[flightless bird|flightless]] [[auk|alcid]] that [[Bird extinction|became extinct]] in the mid-19th century. It was the only modern species in the [[genus]] '''''Pinguinus'''''.
  +
  +
The Great Auk was the original "penguin" -- a massive, flightless, black-and-white Atlantic alcid. It was hunted to extinction by the middle of the 19th century. It had a rapid, wing-propelled underwater flight.<ref name="CompleteBirds">{{cite book|author=Dunn, Jon L. and Alderfer, Jonathan|year=2011|title=National Geographic Completely Birds of North America|isbn=9781426213731|publisher=National Geographic Society}}</ref>
  +
  +
==Taxonomy==
  +
{{clade| style=font-size:100%; line-height:100%
  +
|1={{clade
  +
|1={{clade
  +
|1=''[[Alle alle]]'' (Little Auk)
  +
|2={{clade
  +
|1={{clade
  +
|1=''[[Uria aalge]]'' (Common Murre)
  +
|2=''[[Uria lomvia]]'' (Thick-billed Murre)}}
  +
|2={{clade
  +
|1=''[[Alca torda]]'' (Razorbill)
  +
|2='''''Pinguinus impennis''''' ('''Great Auk''') }} }} }}
  +
|2={{clade
  +
|1={{clade
  +
|1=''[[Brachyramphus marmoratus]]'' (Marbled Murrelet)
  +
|2=''[[Brachyramphus brevirostris]]'' (Kittlitz's Murrelet)}}
  +
|2={{clade
  +
|1=''[[Cepphus grylle]]'' (Black Guillemot)
  +
|2={{clade
  +
|1=''[[Cepphus columba]]'' (Pigeon Guillemot)
  +
|2=''[[Cepphus carbo]]'' (Spectacled Guillemot)}} }} }} }} }}
  +
===Similar and related species===
  +
The Great Auk resembled a larger Razorbill.
   
==Description==
 
===Similar species===
 
 
==Behaviour==
 
==Behaviour==
 
===Diet===
 
===Diet===
Line 9: Line 7:
 
==Distribution/habitat==
 
==Distribution/habitat==
 
==References==
 
==References==
  +
{{Reflist}}
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
   
Line 24: Line 23:
 
[[Category:Pinguinus]]
 
[[Category:Pinguinus]]
 
[[Category:Genera of Charadriiformes]]
 
[[Category:Genera of Charadriiformes]]
  +
[[Category:Extinct flightless birds]]
  +
[[Category:Species made extinct by human activities]]
  +
[[Category:Extinct birds of Atlantic islands]]
  +
[[Category:Extinct birds of Europe]]
  +
[[Category:Extinct birds of North America]]
  +
[[Category:Extinct animals of Canada]]
  +
[[Category:Extinct animals of the United States]]
  +
[[Category:Native birds of the Eastern United States]]
  +
[[Category:Native birds of Eastern Canada]]
  +
[[Category:Birds described in 1758|Great auk]]
  +
[[Category:Bird extinctions since 1500]]
  +
[[Category:Birds of Scandinavia]]
  +
[[Category:Birds of Greenland]]
  +
[[Category:Birds of Iceland]]
  +
[[Category:Pliocene birds of North America]]
  +
[[Category:Pleistocene birds of North America]]
  +
[[Category:Quaternary birds of Europe]]
  +
[[Category:Zanclean first appearances]]
  +
[[Category:1844 in the environment]]
  +
[[Category:Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus]]

Latest revision as of 16:45, May 31, 2020

Great Auk
Temporal range: Neogene – Late Holocene[1]
A large, stuffed bird with a black back, white belly, heavy bill, and white eye patch stands, amongst display cases and an orange wall
Specimen No. 8 and replica egg in the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow
Status iucn3.1 EX.svg
Extinct  (1852) (IUCN 3.1)[2]
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Aequorlitornithes
Order: Charadriiformes
Suborder: Lari
Family: Alcidae
Genus: Pinguinus
Bonnaterre, 1791
Species: P. impennis
Binomial name
Pinguinus impennis
(Linnaeus, 1758)
A map showing the range of the great auk, with the coasts of North America and Europe forming two boundaries, a line stretching from New England to northern Portugal the southern boundary, and the northern boundary wrapping around the southern shore of Greenland
Approximate range (in blue) with known breeding sites indicated by yellow marks[3][4]
Synonyms

The Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis) is a species of flightless alcid that became extinct in the mid-19th century. It was the only modern species in the genus Pinguinus.

The Great Auk was the original "penguin" -- a massive, flightless, black-and-white Atlantic alcid. It was hunted to extinction by the middle of the 19th century. It had a rapid, wing-propelled underwater flight.[5]

TaxonomyEdit




Alle alle (Little Auk)





Uria aalge (Common Murre)



Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)





Alca torda (Razorbill)



Pinguinus impennis (Great Auk)








Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)



Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)





Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)




Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)



Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)






Similar and related speciesEdit

The Great Auk resembled a larger Razorbill.

BehaviourEdit

DietEdit

CallsEdit

ReproductionEdit

Distribution/habitatEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Finlayson, Clive (18 December 2011). Avian survivors: The History and Biogeography of Palearctic Birds. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 157. ISBN 9781408137314. 
  2. ^ Script error
  3. ^ Script error
  4. ^ Script error
  5. ^ Script error

External linksEdit

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.