m (StaraptorEmpoleon moved page Gracula to Hill-myna)
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Latest revision as of 01:11, 10 July 2018

"Hill myna" redirects here. In aviculture, this often refers to the Common Hill-Myna (G. religiosa) specifically.
Diversity and distribution within the genus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Inopinaves
Order: Passeriformes
Suborder: Passeri
Superfamily: Muscicapoidea
Clade: Starling clade
Family: Sturnidae
Subfamily: Graculinae
Tribe: Graculini
Genus: Gracula
Linnaeus, 1758
4-5 species


Gracula is a genus of mynas, tropical members of the starling family of birds. Until recently only two species were recognised, G. religiosa and G. ptilogenys; earlier still all Gracula were considered to belong to a very variable species commonly called Hill Myna. But three additional subspecies of G. religiosa are increasingly being considered distinct species.

This genus has representatives in tropical southern Asia from India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka east to Indonesia, and the Common Hill-Myna, a popular cage bird, has been introduced to the USA.

The hill mynas are resident breeders typically found in forest and cultivation. The nest is built in a hole and the usual clutch is two or three eggs.

These 25–30 cm long birds have glossy black plumage and large white wing patches which are obvious in flight. The bill and strong legs are bright yellow or orange, and there are yellow wattles on the head, the shape and position of which vary with species. The sexes are similar, but juveniles have a duller bill.

Like most starlings, the hill mynas are fairly omnivorous, eating fruit, nectar and insects.


Traditionally, the Sri Lanka Hill Myna was considered a subspecies of the Common Hill Myna, but today all major authorities recognise them as separate. Comparably, the Enggano, Nias and Southern Hill Mynas have traditionally been treated as subspecies of the Common Hill Myna; a treatment still preferred by some authorities.


  • Birds of India by Grimmett, Inskipp and Inskipp, ISBN 0-691-04910-6
  • Feare, Chris; Craig, Adrian (1999). Starlings and Mynas. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-7136-3961-X.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)

External links

Media related to Hill-myna at Wikimedia Commons

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