The Inca finches (Incaspiza) are a genus of finch-like birds traditionally placed in the Emberizidae family, but it may be more closely related to the Thraupidae. Its current family status is incertae sedis. Both their scientific and common name refer to the Incan civilization. They are endemic to arid scrub in central and northern Peru. Buff-bridled, Gray-winged and Little Inca Finch are restricted to the Marañón Valley. Rufous-backed Inca Finch occurs either on the West slope of the Andes and both slopes of the Marañón Valley and is restricted to higher elevations, compared to Great Inca Finch which only occurs on the West slope of the Andes, but generally lower than Rufous-backed Inca Finch. They are rather terrestrial, and typically forage within dense plant growth on the ground, but commonly perch higher, for example on the top of a tall cactus or in a small tree, when singing. They are typically seen singly or in pairs, but sometimes in small groups outside the breeding season. They normally do not take part in mixed-species flocks.
All have a pointed orange-yellow bill, a primarily gray head and chest, a paler buff or whitish belly, extensive white to the outer tail-feathers, and a small – but contrasting – black mask and chin. Except in the Gray-winged Inca Finch, all have a rufous back or wings.
- Great Inca-Finch, Incaspiza pulchra
- Rufous-backed Inca-Finch, Incaspiza personata
- Grey-winged Inca-Finch, Incaspiza ortizi
- Buff-bridled Inca-Finch, Incaspiza laeta
- Little Inca-Finch, Incaspiza watkinsi
- Schulenberg, T., D. Stotz, D. Lane, J. O'Neill, & T. Parker III. (2007). Birds of Peru. Christopher Helm Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7136-8673-9
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