|File:European Herring Gull.png|
|European Herring Gull|
|Part of the cladogram of the genera in the order Charadriiformes based on the analysis by Baker and colleagues published in 2007.|
Laridae is a family of seabirds in the order Charadriiformes that includes the gulls, terns and skimmers. It includes around 100 species arranged into 22 genera. They are an adaptable group of mostly aerial birds found worldwide.
The family Laridae was introduced (as Laridia) by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. Historically, Laridae were restricted to the gulls, while the terns were placed in a separate family, Sternidae, and the skimmers in a third family, Rynchopidae. The noddies were traditionally included in Sternidae. In 1990 Charles Sibley and Jon Ahlquist included auks and skuas in a broader family Laridae.
A molecular phylogenetic study by Baker and colleagues published in 2007 found that the noddies in the genus Anous formed a sister group to a clade containing the gulls, skimmers and the other terns. To create a monophyletic family group, Laridae was expanded to include the genera that had previously been in Sternidae and Rynchopidae.
Baker and colleagues found that the Laridae lineage diverged from a lineage that gave rise to both the skuas (Stercorariidae) and auks (Alcidae) before the end of the Cretaceous in the age of dinosaurs. They also found that the Laridae themselves began expanding in the early Paleocene, around 60 million years ago. The German palaeontologist Gerald Mayr has questioned the validity of these early dates and suggested that inappropriate fossils were used in calibrating the molecular data. The earliest charadriiform fossils date only from the late Eocene, around 35 million years ago.
Anders Ödeen and colleagues investigated the development of ultraviolet vision in shorebirds, by looking for the SWS1 opsin gene in various species; as gulls were the only shorebirds known to have developed the trait. They discovered that the gene was present in the gull, skimmer and noddy lineages but not the tern lineage. They also recovered the noddies as an early lineage, though the evidence was not strong.
Subfamily Gyginae: White Terns
Subfamily Rynchopinae: Skimmers
- Black Skimmer, Rynchops niger
- African Skimmer, Rynchops flavirostris
- Indian Skimmer, Rynchops albicollis
- Brown Noddy or Common Noddy, Anous stolidus
- Black Noddy, Anous minutus
- Lesser Noddy, Anous tenuirostris
- Blue-grey Noddy / Blue Noddy, Anous cerulea
- Grey Noddy, Anous albivitta
- Caspian Tern, Hydroprogne caspia
- Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis
- Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus
- Great Crested Tern / Greater Crested Tern, Thalasseus bergii
- Chinese Crested Tern Thalasseus bernsteini
- Elegant Tern Thalasseus elegans
- Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis
- Cabot's Tern, Thalasseus acuflavidus
- West African Crested Tern, Thalasseus albididorsalis
- Fairy Tern, Sternula nereis
- Damara Tern, Sternula balaenarum
- Little Tern, Sternula albifrons
- Saunders's Tern, Sternula saundersi
- Least Tern, Sternula antillarum
- Yellow-billed Tern, Sternula superciliaris
- Peruvian Tern, Sternula lorata
- Spectacled Tern, Onychoprion lunatus
- Bridled Tern, Onychoprion anaethetus
- Sooty Tern, Onychoprion fuscatus
- Aleutian Tern, Onychoprion aleuticus
- Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii
- White-fronted Tern, Sterna striata
- Black-naped Tern, Sterna sumatrana
- Common Tern, Sterna hirundo
- South American Tern, Sterna hirundinacea
- Antarctic Tern, Sterna vittata
- Arctic Tern, Sterna paradisaea
- Forster's Tern, Sterna forsteri
- Snowy-crowned Tern, Sterna trudeaui
- Black-bellied Tern, Sterna acuticauda (possibly Chlidonias)
- River Tern, Sterna aurantia
- White-cheeked Tern, Sterna repressa (possibly Chlidonias)
- Kerguelen Tern, Sterna virgata
- Black Tern, Chlidonias niger
- White-winged Tern or White-winged Black Tern, Chlidonias leucopterus
- Whiskered Tern, Chlidonias hybridus
- The Black-fronted Tern, Chlidonias albostriatus'
- Large-billed Tern, Phaetusa simplex
- Inca Tern, Larosterna inca
- Swallow-tailed Gull, Creagrus furcatus
Kittiwakes (2 species)
- Ivory Gull, Pagophila eburnea
- Sabine's Gull, Xema sabini
(13 species, including 1 extinct)
- †Huahine Gull, Chroicocephalus utunui
- Slender-billed Gull, Chroicocephalus genei
- Bonaparte's Gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
- Black-headed Gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
- Brown-headed Gull, Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus
- Andean Gull, Chroicocephalus serranus
- Brown-hooded Gull, Chroicocephalus maculipennis
- Grey-hooded Gull, Chroicocephalus poiocephalus
- Grey-headed Gull, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus
- Hartlaub's Gull, Chroicocephalus hartlaubii
- Black-billed Gull, Chroicocephalus bulleri
- Red-billed Gull, Chroicocephalus scopulinus
- Silver Gull, Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae
- Saunders's Gull, Saundersilarus saundersi
- Little Gull, Hydrocoloeus minutus
- Ross's Gull, Rhodostethia rosea
- Dolphin Gull, Leucophaeus scoresbii
- Grey Gull, Leucophaeus modestus
- Lava Gull, Leucophaeus fuliginosus
- Laughing Gull, Leucophaeus atricilla
- Franklin's Gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan
- White-eyed Gull, Ichthyaetus leucophthalmus
- Sooty Gull, Ichthyaetus hemprichii
- Great Black-headed (or Pallas's) Gull, Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus
- Audouin's Gull, Ichthyaetus audouinii
- Mediterranean Gull, Ichthyaetus melanocephalus
- Relict Gull, Ichthyaetus relictus
- Pacific Gull, Larus pacificus
- Belcher's Gull, Larus belcheri
- Olrog's Gull, Larus atlanticus
- Black-tailed Gull, Larus crassirostris
- Heermann's Gull, Larus heermanni
- Common Gull / Mew Gull, Larus canus
- Ring-billed Gull, Larus delawarensis
- Western Gull, Larus occidentalis
- Yellow-footed Gull, Larus livens
- Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus
- European Herring Gull, Larus argentatus
- Armenian Gull, Larus armenicus
- Yellow-legged Gull, Larus michahellis
- Caspian Gull, Larus cachinnans
- Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus (called "Southern Black-backed Gull" or "Karoro" in New Zealand)
- Cape Gull, Larus dominicanus vetula
- Lesser Black-backed Gull, Larus fuscus
- Heuglin's Gull, Larus heuglini
- California Gull, Larus californicus
- American Herring Gull, Larus smithsonianus
- Glaucous-winged Gull, Larus glaucescens
- Glaucous Gull, Larus hyperboreus
- Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides
- Slaty-backed Gull, Larus schistisagus
- Vega Gull / East Siberian Herring Gull, Larus vegae
- Mongolian Gull, Larus mongolicus
Distribution and habitat
The Laridae have spread around the world, and their adaptability has likely been a factor. Most have become much more aerial than their ancestor, which was likely some form of shorebird.
- ^ There is discussion in the IOC about renaming this species "white noddy" to reflect its relationships
- ^ a b c Baker, A.J.; Pereira, S.L.; Paton, T.A. (2007). "Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds". Biology Letters. 3: 205–209. doi: . "Erratum: Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds". Biology Letters. 4: 762–763. 2008. doi: .
- ^ a b Dunn, Jon L. and Alderfer, Jonathan (2011). National Geographic Completely Birds of North America. National Geographic Society. ISBN 9781426213731.
- ^ Script error
- ^ Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and Nomenclature of Avian Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Number 222. New York: American Museum of Natural History. pp. 138, 252.
- ^ Christidis, Les; Boles, Walter E. (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-643-06511-6.
- ^ Sibley, Charles Gald & Ahlquist, Jon Edward (1990): Phylogeny and classification of birds. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.
- ^ a b Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Coursers, noddies, gulls, terns, auks & sandgrouse". World Bird List Version 7.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
- ^ Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.; Bonan, A. "Gulls, Terns, Skimmers (Laridae)". In del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 22 April 2017. (subscription required (. ))
- ^ Mayr, Gerald (2011). "The phylogeny of charadriiform birds (shorebirds and allies) – reassessing the conflict between morphology and molecules". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (4): 916–934. doi: .
- ^ Odeen, Anders; Håstad, Olle; Alström, Per (2010). "Evolution of ultraviolet vision in shorebirds (Charadriiformes)". Biology Letters. 6 (3): 370–74. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0877.
- ^ Moynihan, Martin (1959). A revision of the family Laridae (Aves) (PDF). American Museum Novitates. Number 1928. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
- Grant, Peter J. (1986) Gulls: a guide to identification Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error
- Howell, Steve N. G. and Jon Dunn (2007) Gulls of the Americas Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error
- Olsen, Klaus Malling & Larsson, Hans (1995): Terns of Europe and North America. Christopher Helm, London. Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error
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