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The following is a list of species of crows and ravens within the genus Corvus. The list follows Taxonomy in Flux.[1] The arrangement within the genus Corvus is based on Jønsson et al. (2011c?).[2] This multi-gene analysis replaces a version based on the single-gene analysis of Haring et al. (2012).[3]

Jønsson et al. describe their results in eight clades. They did not include the Cape Crow and Flores Crow. The Flores Crow seems to be in between Clades VII and VIII, and the Cape Crow is basal, although not a jackdaw.

Clade I

Kryukov and Suzuki (2000) and Haring et al. (2007a) found that the jackdaws were rather distant from the other Corvus species.[4][5] They are split from Corvus into Coloeus, as recommended by Rasmussen and Anderton (2005).[6]

Clade II

Clade III

The Cuban and Hispaniolan races of the Palm Crow have been split for about 1 million years, IOC considers them separate species, while the AOU considers them subspecies.[1]

Clade IV

The eastern and western Rooks could be considered separate species, Haring, et al. found this, but more sampling is needed, and whether there is a third rook species.[1]

Clade V

The Chihuahuan Raven and possibly the Pied Crow, are imbedded in the Common Raven complex. The Chihuahuan Raven seems more closely related to the Common Ravens of California than either is to the other Common Ravens (Feldman and Omland, 2004; Omland, 2000, 2006).[7][8][9]

Clade VI

The Carrion and Hooded Crows are closely related and it is unclear as if they represent separate species. Haring et al. (2012) found that some of the eastern individuals were grouped with the Collared Crow, C. torquatus (sometimes called pectoralis).[3]

Clade VII

The Large-billed Crow complex is long been controversial, see Dickinson, et al. (2004).[10]

Clade VIII


Prehistoric and fossilized species

  • New Ireland Crow, Corvus sp. (prehistoric)
  • Chatham Islands Raven, C. moriorum (prehistoric)
  • New Zealand Raven, C. antipodum (prehistoric)
  • High-billed Crow, C. impluviatus (prehistoric)
  • Robust Crow, C. viriosus (prehistoric)
  • Corvus larteti (fossil: Late Miocene of France, or C Europe?)
  • Corvus pliocaenus (fossil: Late Pliocene –? Early Pleistocene of SW Europe)
  • Corvus antecorax (fossil: Late Pliocene/Early – Late Pleistocene of Europe; may be subspecies of Corvus corax)
  • Corvus betfianus (fossil)
  • Corvus praecorax (fossil)
  • Corvus simionescui (fossil)
  • Corvus fossilis (fossil)
  • Corvus moravicus (fossil)
  • Corvus hungaricus (fossil)
  • Puerto Rican Crow C. or "chango" "mozambique" pumilis (prehistoric; possibly a subspecies of C. nasicus/palmarum)
  • Corvus galushai (fossil: Big Sandy Late Miocene of Wickieup, USA)
  • Corvus neomexicanus (fossil: Late Pleistocene of Dry Cave, USA)[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Boyd, John (February 26, 2015). "Corvidae" (v. 3.00 ed.). Retrieved March 16, 2015. 
  2. ^ Jønsson, K.A., P.-H. Fabre, and M. Irestedt (2011c), Brains, tools, innovation and biogeography in crows and ravens, BMC Evol. Biol. 12:72.
  3. ^ a b Haring, E., B. Däubl, W. Pinsker, A. Kryukov, and A. Gamauf (2012), Genetic divergences and intraspecific variation in corvids of the genus Corvus (Aves: Passeriformes: Corvidae) — a first survey based on museum specimens, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 50, 230-246.
  4. ^ Kryukov, A.P., and H. Suzuki (2000), Phylogeography of carrion, hooded and jungle crows (Aves, Corvidae) inferred from partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, Russian J. Genet. 36, 922-929.
  5. ^ Haring, E., A. Gamauf, and A. Kryukov (2007a), Phylogeographic patterns in widespread corvid birds, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 45, 840-862.
  6. ^ Rasmussen, P.C., and J.C. Anderton (2005), “Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide.”, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC.
  7. ^ Feldman, C.R., and K.E. Omland (2004), Phylogenetics of the common raven complex (Corvus corvidae) and the utility of ND4, COI and intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen gene in avian molecular systematics, Zool. Scripta 34, 145-156.
  8. ^ Omland, K.E., C.L. Tarr, W.I. Boarman, J.M. Marzlu, and R.C. Fleischer (2000), Cryptic genetic variation and paraphyly in ravens, Proc. Royal Soc. B 267, 2475-2482.
  9. ^ Omland, K.E., J.M. Baker, and J.L. Peters (2006), Genetic signatures of intermediate divergence: population history of Old and New World Holarctic ravens (Corvus corax), Mol. Ecol. 15, 795-808.
  10. ^ Dickinson, E., S. Eck, and J. Martens (2004), Systematic notes on Asian birds. 44. A preliminary review of the Corvidae, Zool. Verh. Leiden 350, 85-109.
  11. ^ Magish, D. P., and A. H. Harris. 1976. Fossil ravens from the Pleistocene of Dry Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico. Condor 78:399-404.
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