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Chemical series legend

Element categories in the periodic table

Metals Metalloids Nonmetals Unknown
chemical
properties
Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Inner transition metals Transition metals Post-transition metals Other nonmetals Halogens Noble gases
Lanthanides Actinides

List

Z

Sym

Element

Group

Period

Weight
u ()
Density
g / cm3
Melt
K
Boil
K
Heat
J / g K
Neg

Abundance
mg / kg
1 H Hydrogen 1 1 1.00794(7)2 3 4 0.00008988 14.175 20.28 14.304 2.20 1400
2 He Helium 18 1 4.002602(2)2 4 0.0001785 6 4.22 5.193 0.008
3 Li Lithium 1 2 6.941(2)2 3 4 5 0.534 453.85 1615 3.582 0.98 20
4 Be Beryllium 2 2 9.012182(3) 1.85 1560.15 2742 1.825 1.57 2.8
5 B Boron 13 2 10.811(7)2 3 4 2.34 2573.15 4200 1.026 2.04 10
6 C Carbon 14 2 12.0107(8)2 4 2.267 3948.157 4300 0.709 2.55 200
7 N Nitrogen 15 2 14.0067(2)2 4 0.0012506 63.29 77.36 1.04 3.04 19
8 O Oxygen 16 2 15.9994(3)2 4 0.001429 50.5 90.20 0.918 3.44 461000
9 F Fluorine 17 2 18.9984032(5) 0.001696 53.63 85.03 0.824 3.98 585
10 Ne Neon 18 2 20.1797(6)2 3 0.0008999 24.703 27.07 1.03 0.005
11 Na Sodium 1 3 22.98976928(2) 0.971 371.15 1156 1.228 0.93 23600
12 Mg Magnesium 2 3 24.3050(6) 1.738 923.15 1363 1.023 1.31 23300
13 Al Aluminium 13 3 26.9815386(8) 2.698 933.4 2792 0.897 1.61 82300
14 Si Silicon 14 3 28.0855(3)4 2.3296 1683.15 3538 0.705 1.9 282000
15 P Phosphorus 15 3 30.973762(2) 1.82 317.25 553 0.769 2.19 1050
16 S Sulfur 16 3 32.065(5)2 4 2.067 388.51 717.8 0.71 2.58 350
17 Cl Chlorine 17 3 35.453(2)2 3 4 0.003214 172.31 239.11 0.479 3.16 145
18 Ar Argon 18 3 39.948(1)2 4 0.0017837 83.96 87.30 0.52 3.5
19 K Potassium 1 4 39.0983(1) 0.862 336.5 1032 0.757 0.82 20900
20 Ca Calcium 2 4 40.078(4)2 1.54 1112.15 1757 0.647 1 41500
21 Sc Scandium 3 4 44.955912(6) 2.989 1812.15 3109 0.568 1.36 22
22 Ti Titanium 4 4 47.867(1) 4.54 1933.15 3560 0.523 1.54 5650
23 V Vanadium 5 4 50.9415(1) 6.11 2175.15 3680 0.489 1.63 120
24 Cr Chromium 6 4 51.9961(6) 7.15 2130.15 2944 0.449 1.66 102
25 Mn Manganese 7 4 54.938045(5) 7.44 1519.15 2334 0.479 1.55 950
26 Fe Iron 8 4 55.845(2) 7.874 1808.15 3134 0.449 1.83 56300
27 Co Cobalt 9 4 58.933195(5) 8.86 1768.15 3200 0.421 1.88 25
28 Ni Nickel 10 4 58.6934(4) 8.912 1726.15 3186 0.444 1.91 84
29 Cu Copper 11 4 63.546(3)4 8.96 1357.75 2835 0.385 1.9 60
30 Zn Zinc 12 4 65.38(2) 7.134 692.88 1180 0.388 1.65 70
31 Ga Gallium 13 4 69.723(1) 5.907 302.91 2477 0.371 1.81 19
32 Ge Germanium 14 4 72.64(1) 5.323 1211.45 3106 0.32 2.01 1.5
33 As Arsenic 15 4 74.92160(2) 5.776 1090.157 887 0.329 2.18 1.8
34 Se Selenium 16 4 78.96(3)4 4.809 494.15 958 0.321 2.55 0.05
35 Br Bromine 17 4 79.904(1) 3.122 266.05 332.0 0.474 2.96 2.4
36 Kr Krypton 18 4 83.798(2)2 3 0.003733 115.93 119.93 0.248 3 <0.001
37 Rb Rubidium 1 5 85.4678(3)2 1.532 312.79 961 0.363 0.82 90
38 Sr Strontium 2 5 87.62(1)2 4 2.64 1042.15 1655 0.301 0.95 370
39 Y Yttrium 3 5 88.90585(2) 4.469 1799.15 3609 0.298 1.22 33
40 Zr Zirconium 4 5 91.224(2)2 6.506 2125.15 4682 0.278 1.33 165
41 Nb Niobium 5 5 92.90638(2) 8.57 2741.15 5017 0.265 1.6 20
42 Mo Molybdenum 6 5 95.96(2)2 10.22 2890.15 4912 0.251 2.16 1.2
43 Tc Technetium 7 5 [98]1 11.5 2473.15 5150 1.9 <0.001
44 Ru Ruthenium 8 5 101.07(2)2 12.37 2523.15 4423 0.238 2.2 0.001
45 Rh Rhodium 9 5 102.90550(2) 12.41 2239.15 3968 0.243 2.28 0.001
46 Pd Palladium 10 5 106.42(1)2 12.02 1825.15 3236 0.244 2.2 0.015
47 Ag Silver 11 5 107.8682(2)2 10.501 1234.15 2435 0.235 1.93 0.075
48 Cd Cadmium 12 5 112.411(8)2 8.69 594.33 1040 0.232 1.69 0.159
49 In Indium 13 5 114.818(3) 7.31 429.91 2345 0.233 1.78 0.25
50 Sn Tin 14 5 118.710(7)2 7.287 505.21 2875 0.228 1.96 2.3
51 Sb Antimony 15 5 121.760(1)2 6.685 904.05 1860 0.207 2.05 0.2
52 Te Tellurium 16 5 127.60(3)2 6.232 722.8 1261 0.202 2.1 0.001
53 I Iodine 17 5 126.90447(3) 4.93 386.65 457.4 0.214 2.66 0.45
54 Xe Xenon 18 5 131.293(6)2 3 0.005887 161.45 165.03 0.158 2.6 <0.001
55 Cs Caesium 1 6 132.9054519(2) 1.873 301.7 944 0.242 0.79 3
56 Ba Barium 2 6 137.327(7) 3.594 1002.15 2170 0.204 0.89 425
57 La Lanthanum 6 138.90547(7)2 6.145 1193.15 3737 0.195 1.1 39
58 Ce Cerium 6 140.116(1)2 6.77 1071.15 3716 0.192 1.12 66.5
59 Pr Praseodymium 6 140.90765(2) 6.773 1204.15 3793 0.193 1.13 9.2
60 Nd Neodymium 6 144.242(3)2 7.007 1289.15 3347 0.19 1.14 41.5
61 Pm Promethium 6 [145]1 7.26 1204.15 3273 <0.001
62 Sm Samarium 6 150.36(2)2 7.52 1345.15 2067 0.197 1.17 7.05
63 Eu Europium 6 151.964(1)2 5.243 1095.15 1802 0.182 1.2 2
64 Gd Gadolinium 6 157.25(3)2 7.895 1585.15 3546 0.236 1.2 6.2
65 Tb Terbium 6 158.92535(2) 8.229 1630.15 3503 0.182 1.2 1.2
66 Dy Dysprosium 6 162.500(1)2 8.55 1680.15 2840 0.17 1.22 5.2
67 Ho Holmium 6 164.93032(2) 8.795 1743.15 2993 0.165 1.23 1.3
68 Er Erbium 6 167.259(3)2 9.066 1795.15 3503 0.168 1.24 3.5
69 Tm Thulium 6 168.93421(2) 9.321 1818.15 2223 0.16 1.25 0.52
70 Yb Ytterbium 6 173.054(5)2 6.965 1097.15 1469 0.155 1.1 3.2
71 Lu Lutetium 3 6 174.9668(1)2 9.84 1936.15 3675 0.154 1.27 0.8
72 Hf Hafnium 4 6 178.49(2) 13.31 2500.15 4876 0.144 1.3 3
73 Ta Tantalum 5 6 180.94788(2) 16.654 3269.15 5731 0.14 1.5 2
74 W Tungsten 6 6 183.84(1) 19.25 3680.15 5828 0.132 2.36 1.3
75 Re Rhenium 7 6 186.207(1) 21.02 3453.15 5869 0.137 1.9 <0.001
76 Os Osmium 8 6 190.23(3)2 22.61 3300.15 5285 0.13 2.2 0.002
77 Ir Iridium 9 6 192.217(3) 22.56 2716.15 4701 0.131 2.2 0.001
78 Pt Platinum 10 6 195.084(9) 21.46 2045.15 4098 0.133 2.28 0.005
79 Au Gold 11 6 196.966569(4) 19.282 1337.73 3129 0.129 2.54 0.004
80 Hg Mercury 12 6 200.59(2) 13.5336 234.43 630 0.14 2 0.085
81 Tl Thallium 13 6 204.3833(2) 11.85 577.15 1746 0.129 1.62 0.85
82 Pb Lead 14 6 207.2(1)2 4 11.342 600.75 2022 0.129 2.33 14
83 Bi Bismuth 15 6 208.98040(1) 9.807 544.67 1837 0.122 2.02 0.009
84 Po Polonium 16 6 [210]1 9.32 527.15 1235 2 <0.001
85 At Astatine 17 6 [210]1 7 575.15 610 2.2 <0.001
86 Rn Radon 18 6 [222]1 0.00973 202.15 211.3 0.094 <0.001
87 Fr Francium 1 7 [223]1 1.87 300.15 950 0.7 <0.001
88 Ra Radium 2 7 [226]1 5.5 973.15 2010 0.9 <0.001
89 Ac Actinium 7 [227]1 10.07 1323.15 3471 0.12 1.1 <0.001
90 Th Thorium 7 232.03806(2)1 2 11.72 2028.15 5061 0.113 1.3 9.6
91 Pa Protactinium 7 231.03588(2)1 15.37 1873.15 4300 1.5 <0.001
92 U Uranium 7 238.02891(3)1 18.95 1405.15 4404 0.116 1.38 2.7
93 Np Neptunium 7 [237]1 20.45 913.15 4273 1.36 <0.001
94 Pu Plutonium 7 [244]1 19.84 913.15 3501 1.28 <0.001
95 Am Americium 7 [243]1 13.69 1267.15 2880 1.3 08
96 Cm Curium 7 [247]1 13.51 1340.15 3383 1.3 0
97 Bk Berkelium 7 [247]1 14.79 1259.15 983 1.3 0
98 Cf Californium 7 [251]1 15.1 1925.15 1173 1.3 0
99 Es Einsteinium 7 [252]1 13.5 1133.15 1.3 0
100 Fm Fermium 7 [257]1 1.3 0
101 Md Mendelevium 7 [258]1 1.3 0
102 No Nobelium 7 [259]1 1.3 0
103 Lr Lawrencium 3 7 [262]1 1.3 0
104 Rf Rutherfordium 4 7 [261]1 18.1 0
105 Db Dubnium 5 7 [262]1 39 0
106 Sg Seaborgium 6 7 [266]1 35 0
107 Bh Bohrium 7 7 [264]1 37 0
108 Hs Hassium 8 7 [267]1 41 0
109 Mt Meitnerium 9 7 [268]1 35 0
110 Ds Darmstadtium 10 7 [271]1 0
111 Rg Roentgenium 11 7 [272]1 0
112 Cn Copernicium 12 7 [285]1 0
113 Uut Ununtrium 13 7 [284]1 0
114 Uuq Ununquadium 14 7 [289]1 0
115 Uup Ununpentium 15 7 [288]1 0
116 Uuh Ununhexium 16 7 [292]1 0
117 Uus Ununseptium 17 7 [295]1 0
118 Uuo Ununoctium 18 7 [294]1 0

Notes

  • ^1 The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, three elements, thorium, protactinium, and uranium, have a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, and thus their standard atomic weights are given.
  • ^2 The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  • ^3 The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  • ^4 The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  • ^5 The atomic weight of commercial lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996—analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  • ^6 Does not solidify at 1 atm, even near absolute zero, but does at 2.5 MPa at 0.95K.
  • ^7 Sublimes at 1 atm
  • ^8 Transuranic elements 95 and above do not occur naturally, but can be produced artificially.

References

  • M. E. Wieser (2006). "Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. IUPAC. 78 (11): 2051–2066. doi:10.1351/pac200678112051.  (for atomic weights of elements with atomic numbers from 1-102)
  • M. E. Wieser (2007). "IUPAC Standard Atomic Weights Revised (2007)". IUPAC. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  • Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  (for atomic weights of elements with atomic numbers 103-118)

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