This list of ichthyosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the order Ichthyosauria or the parent clade Ichthyopterygia, excluding purely vernacular terms. The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered ichthyopterygian. Non-ichthyosaur ichthyopterygians shall be noted as such.
Scope and terminology
There is no official, canonical list of ichthyosaur genera but one of the most thorough attempts can be found at the "Ichthyosauromorpha" section of Mikko Haaramo's Phylogeny Archive.
Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:
- Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN, but junior synonyms cannot be used again, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
- Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen. In this case, these nomina nuda will be deleted from this list in favor of the published name.
- Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. As preoccupied names are not valid generic names, they will also go unitalicized on this list.
- Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation, this term is not used on this list.
- List of dinosaurs
- List of mosasaurs
- List of plesiosaurs
- List of pterosaurs
- ^ a b c d e f g h Haaramo, Mikko (14 July 2004). "Ichthyosauromorpha". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- ^ a b c d Fischer,V.; Maisch, M.W.; Naish, D.; Kosma, R.; Liston, J.; Joger, U.; Krüger, F.J.; Pérez,J.P.; Tainsh, J.; Appleby, R.M. (2012). "New Ophthalmosaurid Ichthyosaurs from the European Lower Cretaceous Demonstrate Extensive Ichthyosaur Survival across the Jurassic–Cretaceous Boundary". PLoS ONE. 7 (1): e29234. PMC . PMID 22235274. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029234.
- ^ a b c d Bardet N, Fernández M. 2000. A new ichthyosaur from the Upper Jurassic lithographic limestones of Bavaria. Journal of Paleontology 74 (3): 503-511.
- ^ a b c Fernández, M. (2007). "Redescription and phylogenetic position of Caypullisaurus (Ichthyosauria: Ophthalmosauridae)". Journal of Paleontology. 81 (2): 368–375. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2007)81[368:RAPPOC]2.0.CO;2.
- ^ a b c Dal Sasso, Cristiano and Giovanni Pinna, 1996. Besanosaurus leptorhynchus n. gen. n. sp., a new shastasaurid ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic of Besano (Lombardy, N. Italy). Paleontologia Lombarda, Nuova seire Volume IV: 1-23.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera (entry on Reptilia)". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: p.560. Retrieved 2008-09-28.
- ^ a b c d e f g Haaramo, Mikko (11 March 2008). "Ophthalmosauria". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- ^ a b Efimov, VM. (1998). "An Ichthyosaur, Otschevia pseudoscythica gen. et sp. nov from the Upper Jurassic Strata of the Ulyanovsk Region (Volga Region)". Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal. 32 (2): 187–191.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Maisch, MW; Matzke, AT. (2000). "The Ichthyosauria". Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie). 298: 1–159.
- ^ a b c d Haaramo, Mikko (11 March 2004). "Euichthyosauria". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- ^ a b c d Haaramo, Mikko (11 March 2008). "Ichthyosauria". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- ^ a b c Maisch & Matzke, A. T. 2000. The mixosaurid ichthyosaur Contectopalatus from the Middle Triassic of the German Basin. Lethaia 33: 71-74.
- ^ a b c d e f g Patrick S. Druckenmiller, Jørn H. Hurum, Espen M. Knutsen and Hans Arne Nakrem (2012). "Two new ophthalmosaurids (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from the Agardhfjellet Formation (Upper Jurassic: Volgian/Tithonian), Svalbard, Norway" (PDF). Norwegian Journal of Geology. 92 (2–3): 311–339.
- ^ a b c d Robin S. Cuthbertson, Anthony P. Russell and Jason S. Anderson (2013). "Cranial morphology and relationships of a new grippidian (Ichthyopterygia) from the Vega-Phroso Siltstone Member (Lower Triassic) of British Columbia, Canada". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 33 (4): 831–847. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.755989.
- ^ a b c d Aubrey Jane Roberts, Patrick Scott Druckenmiller, Glenn-Peter Sætre and Jørn Harald Hurum (2014). "A New Upper Jurassic Ophthalmosaurid Ichthyosaur from the Slottsmøya Member, Agardhfjellet Formation of Central Spitsbergen". PLoS ONE. 9 (8): e103152. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103152.
- ^ a b c d Valentin Fischer, Maxim S. Arkhangelsky, Gleb N. Uspensky, Ilya M. Stenshin and Pascal Godefroit (2014). "A new Lower Cretaceous ichthyosaur from Russia reveals skull shape conservatism within Ophthalmosaurinae". Geological Magazine. 151 (1): 60–70. doi:10.1017/S0016756812000994.
- ^ a b c d Valentin Fischer, Robert M. Appleby, Darren Naish, Jeff Liston, James B. Riding, Stephen Brindley and Pascal Godefroit (2013). "A basal thunnosaurian from Iraq reveals disparate phylogenetic origins for Cretaceous ichthyosaurs". Biology Letters. 9 (4): 20130021. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0021.
- ^ a b Maisch, M. W,. and Matzke A. T., 1998, Mikadocephalus gracilirostris n. gen., n. sp., a new ichthyosaur from the Grenzbitumenzone (Anisian-Ladinian) of Mont San Giorgio (Switzerland): Palaontologische Zeitschrift, v. 71, n. ¾, p. 267-289.
- ^ a b c Shang Qing-Hua, Li Chun (2009). "On the occurrence of the ichthyosaur Shastasaurus in the Guanling Biota (Late Triassic), Guizhou, China" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 47 (3): 178–193.
- ^ Sander, P.M.; Chen, X.; Cheng, L.; Wang, X. (2011). Claessens, Leon, ed. "Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs". PLoS ONE. 6 (5): e19480. PMC . PMID 21625429. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019480. Unknown parameter
- ^ Jiang, D.-Y.; Schmitz, L.; Motani, R.; Hao, W.-C.; Sun, Y.-L. (2007). "The mixosaurid ichthyosaur Phalarodon cf. P. fraasi from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou Province, China". Journal of Paleontology. 81 (3): 602–605. doi:10.1666/05092.1.
- ^ a b c d Valentin Fischer, Nathalie Bardet, Myette Guiomar and Pascal Godefroit (2014). "High Diversity in Cretaceous Ichthyosaurs from Europe Prior to Their Extinction". PLoS ONE. 9 (1): e84709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084709.
- ^ a b c Nadia B. Fröbisch, Jörg Fröbisch, P. Martin Sander, Lars Schmitz and Olivier Rieppel (2013). "Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. in press. doi:10.1073/pnas.1216750110.
- USMP Berkeley's ichthyosaur introduction
- Ryosuke Motani's detailed Ichthyosaur homepage, with vivid graphics
- Eureptilia: Ichthyosauria - Palaeos
- Ichthyosauria - cladogram (Mikko's Phylogeny Archive)
- Hauff Museum, Germany - exhibiting the finds of Holzmaden
| This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). |
Please help by writing it in the style of All Birds Wiki!