Neotropical Parrots
Blue-and-yellow Macaw.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Superfamily: Psittacoidea
Family: Psittacidae
Subfamily: Arinae


The Neotropical parrots belong to the subfamily Arinae[1] part of the family of the true parrots Psittacidae. Several species and one of the 32 modern genera have become extinct in recent centuries. Though fairly few fossils of modern parrots are known, most of these are from Arini. They attest that modern genera were mostly distinct by the Pleistocene, a few million years ago.

They consist of two main groups, easily recognized as short-tailed and long-tailed species.[2]


The taxonomy of the Neotropical parrots is not yet fully resolved, but the following subdivision is supported by solid studies.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Miyaki et al. (1998)
  3. ^ Leo Joseph, Alicia Toon, Erin E. Schirtzinger, Timothy F. Wright & Richard Schodde. (2012) A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes). Zootaxa 3205: 26–40
  4. ^ Nicole E. White, Matthew J. Phillips, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez, Eske Willerslev, Peter R. Mawson, Peter B.S. Spencer, Michael Bunce (2011). "The evolutionary history of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59: 615–622. PMID 21419232. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.011. 
  5. ^ Manuel Schweizer, Ole Seehausen and Stefan T. Hertwig (2011). "Macroevolutionary patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change, geological events and key innovations". Journal of Biogeography. 38: 2176–2194. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02555.x. 
  6. ^ Leo Joseph, Alicia Toon, Erin E. Schirtzinger, Timothy F. Wright (2011). "Molecular systematics of two enigmatic genera Psittacella and Pezoporus illuminate the ecological radiation of Australo-Papuan parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59: 675–684. PMID 21453777. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.017. 
  7. ^ Wright, T.F.; Schirtzinger E. E., Matsumoto T., Eberhard J. R., Graves G. R., Sanchez J. J., Capelli S., Muller H., Scharpegge J., Chambers G. K. & Fleischer R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Mol Biol Evol. 25 (10): 2141–2156. PMC 2727385Freely accessible. PMID 18653733. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  8. ^ Schweizer, M.; Seehausen O, Güntert M and Hertwig ST (2009). "The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. online. PMID 19699808. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.021.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  9. ^ de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36: 706–721. PMID 16099384. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  • Miyaki, C. Y.; Matioli, S. R.; Burke, T. & Wajntal, A. (1998): Parrot evolution and paleogeographical events: Mitochondrial DNA evidence. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15: 544-551. PDF fulltext
  • Ribas, C., R. Gaban-Lima, C. Miyaki, and J. Cracraft (2005). Historical biogeography and diversification within the Neotropical parrot genus Pionopsitta (Aves: Psittacidae). Journal Biogeography 32:1409-1427.
  • Split Gypopsitta from Pionopsitta South American Classification Committee.
Template:Amazon parrots

Wrybill This article is part of Project Bird Subfamilies, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on each bird subfamily, including made-up families.
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