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Pilosa[1]
Temporal range: Paleocene - Holocene, 55.8–0 Ma
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Giant anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Superorder: Xenarthra
Order: Pilosa
Flower, 1883
Suborders

Vermilingua - anteaters
Folivora - sloths

The order Pilosa is a group of placental mammals, extant today only in the Americas. It includes the anteaters and sloths, including the recently extinct ground sloths. The name comes from the Latin word for "hairy".[2]

The biogeographic origins of the Pilosa is still unclear,[3] but they can be traced back in South America as far as the early Paleogene (about 60 million years ago, or only a short time after the end of the dinosaur era). The presence of these animals in Central America and their former presence in North America is a result of the Great American Interchange. A number of sloths were also formerly present on the Antilles, which they reached from South America by some combination of rafting or floating with the prevailing currents.

Together with the armadillos, Pilosa is part of the larger group Xenarthra. In the past, Pilosa was regarded as a suborder of the order Xenarthra, while some more recent classifications regard Pilosa as an order within the superorder Xenarthra. Earlier still, both armadillos and pilosans were classified together with pangolins and the aardvark as the order Edentata (meaning toothless, because the members do not have front incisor teeth or molars, or have poorly developed molars). It was subsequently realized that Edentata was polyphyletic—that it contained unrelated families and was thus invalid.

Classification

File:Nothrotheriops.jpg

Restoration of the Shasta ground sloth, Nothrotheriops shastensis

Order Pilosa

  • Suborder Vermilingua
    • Family Cyclopedidae
      • Silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus
    • Family Myrmecophagidae
      • Giant anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla
      • Northern tamandua, Tamandua mexicana
      • Southern tamandua, Tamandua tetradactyla
  • Suborder Folivora
    • Family Bradypodidae: three-toed sloths
      • Pygmy three-toed sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus
      • Brown-throated three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus
      • Pale-throated three-toed sloth, Bradypus tridactylus
      • Maned three-toed sloth, Bradypus torquatus
    • Family Megalonychidae: two-toed sloths and extinct megalonychid ground sloths
      • Hoffman's two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni
      • Linnaeus's two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus
    • Family †Megatheriidae: megatheriid ground sloths
    • Family †Mylodontidae: mylodontid ground sloths
    • Family †Nothrotheriidae: nothrotheriid ground sloths

References

  1. ^ Gardner, A. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ Kidd, D.A. (1973). Collins Latin Gem Dictionary. London: Collins. p. 248. ISBN 0-00-458641-7. 
  3. ^ A proposed clade, Atlantogenata, would include Xenarthra and early African mammals.

[1] Template:Pilosa

Macropus eugenii 2 Gould.jpg This article is part of Project Mammal Orders, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on each mammal order, including made-up orders.
Mammal Diversity 2011.png This article is part of Project Mammal Taxonomy, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on every order, family and other taxonomic rank related to mammals.
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Please help by writing it in the style of All Birds Wiki!
  1. ^ Clutton-Brock, Juliet (2002). Mammals. Dorling Kindersley Inc. ISBN 9780789484048. 
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