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Brush-tailed penguins
Manchot 01
Pygoscelis antarctica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Aves
Order: Sphenisciformes
Family: Spheniscidae
Genus: Pygoscelis
Wagler, 1832
Species

Pygoscelis adeliae
Pygoscelis antarctica
Pygoscelis papua
Pygoscelis tyreei (fossil)
Pygoscelis calderensis (fossil)
Pygoscelis grandis (fossil)

The genus Pygoscelis ("rump-legged") contains three living species of penguins collectively known as "The Brush-Tailed Penguins".[citation needed] Their appearance - black above, white below - is the stereotypical image of penguins, and so what most people think of when they think of penguins.

Taxonomy[]

Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence suggests the genus split from other penguins around 38 million years ago, about 2 million years after the ancestors of the genus Aptenodytes. In turn, the Adelie Penguins split off from the other members of the genus around 19 million years ago.[1]

The three extant species are:

Extinct species:

  • Pygoscelis grandis (Bahía Inglesa Formation, Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Bahía Inglesa, Chile)
  • Pygoscelis calderensis (Bahía Inglesa Formation, Late Miocene of Bahía Inglesa, Chile)
  • Pygoscelis tyreei (Pliocene of New Zealand)

The latter two are tentatively assigned to this genus.

Species photographs[]

Photographs of adult penguins of the extant (living) species:

References[]

  1. ^ Baker AJ, Pereira SL, Haddrath OP, Edge KA (2006). "Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling". Proc Biol Sci. 273 (1582): 11–17. PMC 1560011Freely accessible. PMID 16519228. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3260. 



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