Temporal range: Early Eocene – Recent
|File:Brown boobytern .JPG|
|Brown Booby, Sula leucogaster|
The order Suliformes (dubbed "Phalacrocoraciformes" by Christidis & Boles 2008) is a proposed order by the International Ornithologist's Union. In regard to the recent evidence that the traditional Pelecaniformes is polyphyletic, it has been suggested that the group be split up to reflect the true evolutionary relationships.
Systematics and evolution
Of the families in Pelecaniformes, only Pelecanidae, Balaenicipitidae, and Scopidae remain. The tropicbird family Phaethontidae has since been moved to their own order Phaethontiformes. Genetic analysis seems to show that the Pelecaniformes is actually closely related to the Ardeidae and Threskiornithidae. As for the Suliformes, they seem to be only distantly related to the current Pelecaniformes. According to the Hackett Taxonomy, loons, penguins, storks, and as well as Suliformes and Pelecaniformes, all seem to have evolved from a common ancestor. The proposed waterbird superorder has been suggested.
In their landmark 2008 work Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds, Australian ornithologists Les Christidis and Walter E. Boles coined the name Phalacrocoraciformes for the group due to the much greater number of species of cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae) over boobies and gannets (Sulidae), after the removal of pelicans to Ciconiiformes. However, this has not been taken up elsewhere.
In 1994, American ornithologist Walter J. Bock wrote that the name Suloidea had been used consistently as a term for a superfamily containing the two families, so therefore "Sulidae" and not "Phalacrocoracidae" should take priority in any arrangement containing the two genera.
In 1994, Martyn Kennedy and colleagues constructed a behavioural data set, with the resulting tree showing a high level of congruence with existing phylogenies based on genetics or morphology. It showed the darters as sister group to the cormorants and shags, with the gannets and boobies, then pelicans, then frigatebirds and lastly tropicbirds as progressively earlier offshoots.
1 genus, 5 species
- Lesser Frigatebird, Fregata ariel
- Ascension Frigatebird, Fregata aquila
- Magnificent Frigatebird or man o'war, Fregata magnificens
- Great Frigatebird, Fregata minor
- Christmas Island Frigatebird, Fregata andrewsi
3 genera, 10 species
- Abbott's Booby, Papasula abbotti
- Northern Gannet, or solan goose, Morus bassanus
- Cape Gannet, Morus capensis
- Australasian Gannet, Morus serrator
- Red-footed Booby, Sula sula
- Brown Booby, Sula leucogaster
- Blue-footed Booby, Sula nebouxii
- Peruvian Booby, Sula variegata
- Masked Booby, Sula dactylatra
- Nazca Booby, Sula granti
1 genus, 4 species
- Anhinga or American Darter, Anhinga anhinga
- African Darter, Anhinga rufa
- Oriental Darter or Indian Darter, Anhinga melanogaster
- Australasian Darter or Australian Darter, Anhinga novaehollandiae
3 genera, 42 species
- Long-tailed Cormorant, Microcarbo africanus
- Little Pied Cormorant, Microcarbo melanoleucos
- Crowned Cormorant, Microcarbo coronatus
- Little Cormorant, Microcarbo niger
- Pygmy Cormorant, Microcarbo pygmaeus
- Red-footed Shag, Phalacrocorax gaimardi
- Spectacled Cormorant, Phalacrocorax perspicillatus - extinct (c. 1850)
- Brandt's Cormorant, Phalacrocorax penicillatus
- Pelagic Cormorant or Baird's Cormorant, Phalacrocorax pelagicus
- Red-faced Cormorant, Phalacrocorax urile
- Bank Cormorant, Phalacrocorax neglectus
- Cape Cormorant, Phalacrocorax capensis
- White-breasted Cormorant, Phalacrocorax lucidus
- Great Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo
- Japanese Cormorant, Phalacrocorax capillatus
- Socotra Cormorant, Phalacrocorax nigrogularis
- Spotted Shag Phalacrocorax punctatus
- Pitt Cormorant or Featherstone's Shag Phalacrocorax featherstoni
- Indian Cormorant, Phalacrocorax fuscicollis
- Little Black Cormorant, Phalacrocorax sulcirostris
- Black-faced Cormorant, Phalacrocorax fuscescens
- Pied Cormorant / Australian Pied Cormorant, Phalacrocorax varius
- European Shag, Phalacrocorax aristotelis
- Flightless Cormorant, Phalacrocorax harrisi
- Neotropic Cormorant / Olivaceous Cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (or Phalacrocorax olivaceus)
- Double-crested Cormorant or White-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus
- Magellan Shag / Rock Shag, Phalacrocorax magellanicus
- Guanay Cormorant, Phalacrocorax bougainvillii
- Bounty Shag, Phalacrocorax ranfurlyi
- King Shag / Rough-faced Shag, Phalacrocorax carunculatus
- Stewart Shag / Bronze Shag, Phalacrocorax chalconotus
- Chatham Shag, Phalacrocorax onslowi
- Auckland Shag, Phalacrocorax colensoi
- Campbell Shag, Phalacrocorax campbelli
- Falkland Cormorant / White-bellied Shag, Phalacrocorax atriceps albiventer
- Imperial Cormorant / Imperial Shag, Phalacrocorax atriceps
- South Georgia Shag, Phalacrocorax georgianus
- Crozet Shag, Phalacrocorax melanogenis
- Antarctic Shag, Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis
- Kerguelen Shag, Phalacrocorax verrucosus
- Heard Shag, Phalacrocorax nivalis
- Macquarie Shag, Phalacrocorax purpurascens
- ^ http://www.worldbirdnames.org/n-ibises.html
- ^ Mayr (2003)
- ^ Kennedy et al. (2000), Mayr (2005)
- ^ A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History. Shannon J. Hackett, et al" Science 320, 1763 (2008)
- ^ Christidis, Les; Boles, Walter E. (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-643-06511-6.
- ^ Bock, Walter J. (1994). "History and nomenclature of avian family-group names". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 222: 1-281 [166-67].
If Sula and Phalacrocorax are included in the same family-level taxon (e.g. superfamily), then Sulidae Reichenbach, 1849 (1836) (Sula Brisson, 1760) has priority in preference to Phalacrocoracidae Reichenbach, 1849-50 (1836) (Phalacrocorax Brisson, 1760), because the name Suloidea has been consistently used in avian classification as a superfamily name. Phalacrocoracidae Reichenbach, 1849-50 (1836) can still be used for any taxon containing Phalacrocorax but not Sula.
- ^ R. Terry Chesser, Richard C. Banks, F. Keith Barker, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Irby J. Lovette, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen Jr., James D. Rising, Douglas F. Stotz and Kevin Winker (July 2010). "Fifty-First Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds" (PDF). The Auk. 127 (3): 726–44. doi:10.1525/auk.2010.127.4.966.
- ^ "Taxonomy Version 2". IOC World Bird List: Version 3.1. 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- ^ Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G.; Gray, Russell D. (1996). "Hop, step and gape: do the social displays of the Pelecaniformes reflect phylogeny?". Animal Behaviour. 51: 273–91. doi:10.1006/anbe.1996.0028.
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