|A Scarlet Tanager and Rose-breasted Grosbeak, both members of this group and Cardinalidae.|
|Clade:|| Thraupid group|
Fringillidae (sensu Sibley and Ahlquist)
The thraupid group is mainly found in the Americas, from Canada to Argentina. Tanagers reach their greatest diversity in the New World tropics.
Species found in South America are nonmigrant.
They range from small, such as the Bananaquit and conebills, which are 4 in (10 cm), and the Painted and Indigo Buntings, which are 5 in (13 cm); to medium, such as cardinals, which are up to 9 in (23 cm) as well as the Black-headed Saltator, which is 10 in (25 cm) and the Magpie Tanager, which is 11 in (28 cm).
Many species of tanager have stout bills, similar to finches. Honeycreepers, however; have thin and decurved bills, while the flowerpiercers bills are slightly upturned with a hooked tip. Grosbeaks have thick bills and powerful jaw muscles, used to crack open heavy seeds. The Giant Conebill resembles a nuthatch, while most species of tanagers have a finchlike body shape, with a medium-sized tail.
Behaviour and diet
The males of most species of
Tanagers generally eat fruit, but most species also eat insects and spiders.
Euphonias and chlorophonias were once classified as tanagers. Many books may classify them as tanagers still. According to Groth, (1998); Klicka et al., (2000); Yuri and Mindell, (2002); Zuccon et al., (2012), they are embedded in Fringillidae.
For some decades, taxonomists have placed the Darwin's finches in the family Emberizidae along with the New World sparrows and Old World buntings (Sulloway 1982). However, the Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy puts Darwin's finches with the tanagers (Monroe and Sibley 1993), and at least one recent work follows that example (Burns and Skutch 2003). The American Ornithologists' Union, in its North American check-list, places the Cocos Finch in the Emberizidae but with an asterisk indicating that the placement is probably wrong (AOU 1998–2006); in its tentative South American check-list, the Galápagos species are incertae sedis, of uncertain place (Remsen et al. 2007).
- ^ a b John H. Boyd III (November 17, 2011). "CORE PASSEROIDEA V: Cardinalidae and Thraupidae". TiF Checklist. Retrieved 18-08-2019. Check date values in:
- ^ a b c d Hilty, Steven L.; Brown, William L.; Tudor, Guy (1986). A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press. ISBN 069108372X.
- ^ Arlott, Norman (2007). A Field Guide to the Birds of the Palearctic: Passerines. Harper Collins Publishers Ltd. ISBN 9780007147052.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Frances, Peter; et al. (2007). Bird: The Definitive Visual Guide. Dorling Kindersley Inc. ISBN 1564582957.
- ^ a b c d e f Garrigues, Richard and Dean, Robert (2007). The Birds of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical Publication. ISBN 9780801473739.
- ^ Peterson, Roger Tory (1961). A Field Guide to Western Birds. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 039513692X.
- ^ Groth, J.G. (1998), Molecular phylogenetics of Finches and Sparrows: Consequences of character state removal in Cytochrome b sequences, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 10, 377-390.
- ^ Klicka, J., K.P. Johnson and S.M. Lanyon (2000), New world nine-primaried oscine relationships: Constructing a mitochondrial DNA framework, Auk 117, 321-336.
- ^ Yuri, T. and D.P. Mindell (2002), Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fringillidae, “New World nine-primaried oscines” (Aves: Passeriformes), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 23, 229-243.
- ^ Zuccon, D., Prys-Jones, R., P.C. Rasmussen, and P.G.P. Ericson (2012), The phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of finches (Fringillidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 62, 581-596.
- ^ Sulloway, Frank J. (1982), "The Beagle collections of Darwin's finches (Geospizinae)", Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Historical Series 43 (2): 49–94, http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=A86&viewtype=image&pageseq=1, retrieved 2008-12-08
- ^ Sibley, Charles G. (1993), A World Checklist of Birds, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-07083-7, http://books.google.com/?vid=ISBN0300070837, retrieved 2013-12-06 Monroe and Sibley consider the tanagers to be a tribe (Thraupini) of a big family Fringillidae rather than a family of their own (Thraupidae).
- ^ Burns, Kevin J.; Skutch, Alexander F. (2003), "Tanagers and Tanager-Finches", in Christopher Perrins, ed., The Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds, Firefly Books, pp. 629–631, ISBN 1-55297-777-3, http://www.amazon.com/Firefly-Encyclopedia-Birds-Christopher-Perrins/dp/1552977773/ref=si3_rdr_bb_product/103-5704731-0011011, retrieved 2007-04-09 It is not clear whether this placement was made by Burns and Skutch or by Perrins.
- ^ Check-list of North American Birds, American Ornithologists' Union, 1998–2006, archived from the original on April 4, 2007, http://web.archive.org/web/20070404023350/http://www.aou.org/checklist/index.php3, retrieved 2007-04-09
- ^ *Zimmer, J. (2007-04-05), A classification of the bird species of South America, American Ornithologists' Union, http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html, retrieved 2007-04-09
|This article is part of Project Bird Taxonomy, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on every order, family and other taxonomic rank related to birds.|