IN this blog post, I'll be charting all of the taxonomic changes to the hummingbird family.
First off, this is a very daunting task because there are so many genera and species of hummingbirds. Even though we know, what a hummingbird is and what is not, that still does not mean changes won't take place!
The latest changes are based on Taxonomy in Flux, as well as H&M-4 (Dickinson and Remsen, 2013). For the sake of TiF, I'll be using the arrow (→) symbol, so it'll look like I'm not copying Boyd.
Higher taxa changes
- The hummingbird subfamilies Florisuginae and Phaethornithinae now each have two tribes: Florisugini, Topazini and Eutoxerini and Phaethornithini, respectively.
- Polytimini is elevated to subfamily status. It takes the name Polytiminae.
- Trochilinae loses two of its tribes to a new subfamily, Lesbiinae and gains Lesbiini and Coeligenini.
- Trochilini is split into two tribes: Trochilini and Cynanthini.
- Anthracothorax → Eulampis. ✓
- Kirchman et al. (2010) found that the Bogota Sunangel is not part of Heliangelus. It was left with no genus, and is currently "Heliangelus". ✓
- Chalcostigma and Oreonympha → Oxypogon. ✓
- Marvellous Spatuletail (Loddigesia) → Eriocnemis. However, this causes a name conflict with the Colourful Puffleg, and is now called Eriocnemis "mirabilis". ✓
- Clytolaema → Heliodoxa. ✓
- Nesophlox and Philodice have been separated from Calliphlox. Nesophlox may consist of two species (Feo et al., 2015). ✓
- Atthis → Selasphorus. ✓
- Basilinna has been separated from Hylocharis. ✓
- Pampa has been separated from Campylopterus. ✓
- Chlorostilbon and Cyanophaia → Cynanthus. ✓
- Mexican Woodnymph has been moved to Eupherusa from Thalurania. ✓
- Talaphorus and Thaumasius have been separated from Leucippus. ✓
- Saucerottia has been separated from Amazilia.
- Lepidopyga → Chrysuronia, which has been separated from Amazilia and has also gained two former members of Hylocharis. ✓
- The remaining Hylocharis have been augmented with some former members of Amazilia. ✓
- Polyerata has been separated from Amazilia. ✓
- Chlorestes has been augmented with Juliamyia, two former Hylocharis and one former Amazilia. ✓
- Mexican Hermit, Phaethornis mexicanus, has been spilt from Long-billed Hermit, Phaethornis longirostris. (Howell (2013), and Arbeláz-Cortés and Navarro-Sigüenza (2013)).
- (!!) Speckled Hummingbird, Adelomyia melanogenys, may include five to six species, one of them unnamed (Chaves and Smith, 2011; Chaves et al., 2011).
- Bearded Helmetcrest (Oxypogon guerinii) has been split into three species: Green-bearded Helmetcrest, Oxypogon guerinii, Blue-bearded Helmetcrest, Oxypogon cyanolaemus, White-bearded Helmetcrest, Oxypogon lindenii, and Buffy Helmetcrest, Oxypogon stuebelii based on Collar and Salaman (2013).
- Doubleday's Hummingbird, Chlorostilbon doubledayi, has been split from Broad-billed Hummingbird, Chlorostilbon latirostris. They are treated as separate species by IOC, HBW-5 (Schuchmann, 1999), and Howell and Webb (1995), but not AOU.
- Wedge-tailed Sabrewing, Campylopterus [Pampa] curvipennis, has been split into Curve-winged Sabrewing, Campylopterus [Pampa] curvipennis and Wedge-tailed Sabrewing, Campylopterus [Pampa] pampa. (Gonzalez et al. (2011) and Navarro-Sigüenza, and Peterson (2004)).
- Blossomcrown (Anthocephala floriceps), has been split into the Santa Marta Blossomcrown, Anthocephala floriceps and Andean Blossomcrown, Anthocephala berlepschi (See Lozano-Jaramillo et al. (2014) and SACC proposal #654 (under consideration).)
- Plovercrest (Stephanoxis lalandi) has been split into Purple-crowned Plovercrest, Stephanoxis loddigesii, and Green-crowned Plovercrest, Stephanoxis lalandi. (See Cavarzere et al. (2014) and SACC proposal #664 (under consideration).)
- The Streamertail is usually considered to be one species, however; there is a narrow hybrid zone (Gill, et al. (1973)). AOU maintains them as one species, while IOC, H&M, BLI and HBW-5 (Schuchmann, 1999) split them into Red-billed Streamertail, Trochilus polytmus, and Black-billed Streamertail, Trochilus scitulus.
- Blue-vented Hummingbird, Saucerottia hoffmanni, has been split from the Steely-vented Hummingbird, Saucerottia saucerottei.
- Violet-crowned Woodnymph, Thalurania colombica, and Green-crowned Woodnymph, Thalurania fannyi, have been merged into Crowned Woodnymph, Thalurania colombica. (See SACC proposal #558.)
- ^ Kirchman, J.J., C.C. Witt, J.A. McGuire, and G.R. Graves (2010), DNA from a 100-year-old holotype confirms the validity of a potentially extinct hummingbird species, Biol. Lett. 6, 112-115.
- ^ Feo, T.J., J.M. Musser, J. Berv, and C.J. Clark (2015), Divergence in morphology, calls, song, mechanical sounds, and genetics supports species status for the Inaguan hummingbird (Trochilidae: Calliphlox 'evelynae' lyrura), Auk 132, 248-264.
- ^ Howell, S.N.G. (2013), Taxonomy and song of Mexican Hermit Phaethornis mexicanus, Neotropical Birding 13, 4-7.
- ^ Chaves, J.A., and T.B. Smith (2011), Evolutionary patterns of diversification in the Andean hummingbird genus Adelomyia, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 60, 207-218.
- ^ Chaves, J.A., J.T. Weir, and T.B. Smith (2011a), Diversification in Adelomyia hummingbirds follows Andean uplift, Mol. Ecol. 20, 4564-4576.
- ^ Collar, N.J., and P. Salaman (2013), The taxonomic and conservation status of the Oxypogon helmetcrests, Conservación Colombiana 19, 31-38.
- ^ González, C., J.F. Ornelas, and C. Gutiérrez-Rodríguez (2011), Selection and geographic isolation influence hummingbird speciation: genetic, acoustic and morphological divergence in the wedge-tailed sabrewing (Campylopterus curvipennis), BMC Evol. Biol. 11:38.
- ^ Lozano-Jaramillo, M., A. Rico-Guevara, and C.D. Cadena (2014), Genetic Differentiation, Niche Divergence, and the Origin and Maintenance of the Disjunct Distribution in the Blossomcrown Anthocephala floriceps (Trochilidae), PLoS ONE 9, e108345.
- ^ South American Classification Committee (???). "Proposal (#654) Elevate the subspecies Anthocephala floriceps floriceps and A. f. berlepschi to species rank". Retrieved April 13, 2015. Check date values in:
- ^ Cavarzere, V., L.F. Silveira, M.F. de Vasconcelos, R. Grantsau, and F.C. Straube (2014), Taxonomy and biogeography of Stephanoxis Simon, 1897 (Aves: Trochilidae), Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 54, 69-79.
- ^ South American Classification Committee (???). "Proposal (#664) Treat Stephanoxis lalandi as consisting of two species". Retrieved April 13, 2015. Check date values in:
- ^ Gill, F.B., F.J. Stokes and C. Stokes (1973), Contact Zones and Hybridization in the Jamaican Hummingbird, Trochilus polytmus (L.), Condor 75, 170-176.
- ^ Schuchmann, K.L. (1999), Trochilidae (Hummingbirds),, in “Handbook of the Birds of the World, volume 5, Barn-owls to Hummingbirds”, (del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, eds.), Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, pp. 468-680.
- ^ South American Classification Committee (???). "Proposal (#556) Treat Thalurania fannyi and Thalurania colombica as conspecific". Retrieved April 13, 2015. Check date values in: